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13th Biennial International Conference on Baroque Music


The Fourteenth Biennial International Conference on Baroque Music will be held at Queen’s University, Belfast. The dates have been confirmed as 30 June-4 July, 2010 (please update your diary if you had the earlier provisional dates of 7-11 July, 2010)

In this section:

About: About the Conference

The Biennial Conference on Baroque Music, instituted in 1984, has become one of the most important musicological meetings in the academic calendar. A large number of delegates from Europe, North America and Australasia have attended the most recent conferences held at Dublin (2000), La Rioja (2002), Manchester (2004) and Warsaw (2006).

The Thirteenth conference in Leeds will continue the well-established tradition of previous meetings, and will offer a stimulating cultural and academic environment. The conference will take full advantage of the excellent facilities offered by the School of Music, and will include an introduction to the Special Collections of the University of Leeds Brotherton Library, and an opening concert of English anthems and organ music in the Clothworkers’ Centenary Concert Hall.

The School of Music at the University of Leeds is the largest music department in the UK HE sector. It promotes a uniquely diverse yet coherent portfolio of research, encompassing art, popular and world musics, performance, technology, psychology and composition. The School is housed in a purpose-built building at the heart of the University campus, which includes the very fine Clothworkers’ Centenary Concert Hall.

The conference has been scheduled to coincide with the beginning of the York Early Music Festival, and will include a trip to the festival performance of Handel’s Israel in Egypt at the York Minster on Saturday 5 July.

A selection of new and used books and scores will be offered for sale by Philip Martin Music Books of York.

Conference Programme and Abstracts

In this section:

Thursday 3 July

9.00am – 11.00am

Bass Viol, Lute and Violoncello

John Cunningham

Title : A Musical Miscellany: Marsh’s Library, Dublin, MS Z3.4.13

Archbishop Narcissus Marsh (1638-1713) established his library in 1701 (from 1707, the first free public library in Ireland). Today the library consists of over 25,000 items; in 1983 Richard Charteris published a catalogue of the music collection (approximately 100 items; Music in Marsh’s Library, Dublin: 1983). One of the manuscripts in the collection, Z3.4.13, helps to give us a sense of the broad repertoire possibly performed at Marsh’s weekly music meetings held in Oxford between 1666 and 1678. Z3.4.13 is a large guardbook of loose leaves and eight fascicles containing miscellaneous consort music by William Lawes, Simon Ives, Christopher Simpson and others. Of particular interest is the fascicle of lyra-viol music containing 56 pieces for lyra-viol ensemble; only one part survives, although concordances suggest that they are trios. The lyra-viol trio was apparently popular until the middle of the seventeenth century. The latest surviving trios appear to have been composed by 1640 or so: by the time of Marsh’s weekly music meetings most of the leading contributors to the genre were dead. Z3.4.13 is of particular interest as few sources of lyra-viol ensemble music have survived (fewer still are complete), which has greatly hampered our understanding of the genre. This paper re-assesses Z3.4.13, with particular reference to its significance in the later development of ensemble lyra-viol music.

Francisco del Amo

Title : Anthony Poole and the Music for Bass Viol in F-Pn Vm7. 137323 and Vm7. 137317

F-Pn Vm7. 137323 and Vm7. 137317 constitute an extraordinary manuscript collection of music for bass viol and bass from the second half of the Seventeenth Century. These volumes contain music by English viol-playing Jesuit Anthony Poole (1629-1692) as well as a large number of unattributed works. In this paper I will explore several aspects of this little-known source in order to piece together a context for its genesis, copying and transmission. My investigation will cast some light on the nature of the musical contribution of the English Catholic community exiled in Europe.

Andrew Hill

Title : Articulation and Ornaments in the sources for Bach’s Suite for Violoncello BWV 1011, with a comparison to related works for violin and lute

There are no indications of tempo or dynamics in the source manuscripts of J.S.Bach’s Suite for Unaccompanied Violoncello BWV 1011, so the articulation markings and ornaments are our primary indicators of Bach’s intentions for the performance practice of this Suite. Comparisons to the related set of sources for the Violin Partita BWV 1006 can be informative because there are copies written by Anna Magdalena Bach and Johannes Peter Kellner of both the Suite and the Partita, and there are also autograph transcriptions of both works for lute (BWV 995 and BWV 1006a). The main difference in the sets of sources is that an autograph copy has survived of the Partita and of the lute transcriptions, but not of the cello version of the Suite. This paper describes research in progress which is examining the articulation and ornaments in detail in the cello, violin and lute manuscripts mentioned above, comparing the quantity, positioning and types of slurs and ornaments, and analysing the extent to which they correlate. Some explanations will be suggested for the differences and apparent inconsistencies between the sources, leading to tentative conclusions about the reliability and intentions of the copyists concerned, trends in performance practice during Bach’s lifetime, the extent to which consistency was sought rather than variety, and possible relationships between the sources.

Žak Ozmo

Title : The Lute in Its Twilight or Golden Age?: Forgotten Lute Concertos, Composers, and Performers in Early Eighteenth-Century German Courts

In the early part of the eighteenth century, the lute found its most active proponents in composers employed in German-speaking lands, even achieving a second Golden Age for the instrument unmatched since the Elizabethan era. Despite this popularity, much of the period’s lute music was discarded or forgotten, and many of its most prominent composers faded into obscurity. This paper seeks to uncover more information about the unjustly neglected German lute concertos of the eighteenth century by focusing primarily on the repertoire contained in B-Br MS II 4089 (formerly Fétis 2914) currently in the Bibliothéque Royale Albert Ier in Brussels, Belgium. Included in this manuscript collection are seven complete concertos, including works by Wolff Jacob Lauffensteiner, Johann Michael Kühnel, Gottfried Meusel, and a previously unknown composer titled only “Corigiani.” Although current scholarship tells us little or nothing about the nearly-forgotten composers presented in this collection, they were associated with some of the most influential courts in continental Europe. A further examination of this collection also sheds light on lute performance and concerto practices in the middle part of the eighteenth century. In this paper, I also investigate the possible origins and intended audience of this significant collection, and discuss issues of style and performance.

Eighteenth-Century Italian Opera

Francesca Menchelli-Buttini

Title : Pietro Metastasio’s Demofoonte (1733) and Leonardo Leo’s music for the 1735-1741 Neapolitan settings

Demofoonte was written by Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782) in Vienna in 1733 for the nameday of the Emperor Charles VI. The story recounts a family drama based on a secret marriage forbidden by the older generation. Conflict is exacerbated by the misdemeanours of the young hero, but there are no cold-blooded villains. My study opens with the exploration of the points of tangency between Metastasio’s libretto and its models, in order to pose the problems of reading and interpretation across texts, modes and genres. Especially Antoine Houdar de La Motte’s Inés de Castro and Torquato Tasso’s Il re Torrismondo are sources of the utmost importance: the former to defining the plot lines and structure, the latter to delaying resolution. I then proceed to select two key situations: the discovery of the secret marriage and a memorable coup de théâtre, the moment when the marriage, finally forgiven by the king-father, comes to be seemingly marked by the horror of incest. This gives an opportunity to evoke confrontations and choices that may evaluate the contribution of music to Metastasio’s drama. The musical example comes from Leonardo Leo (1694-1744), maestro di cappella and author of most popular operas. In 1735 Leo participated in a Neapolitan première of Demofoonte. Contemporary commentators singled out for praise particularly two of his pieces: one is the farewell duet at the end of the second act, “La destra ti chiedo”, the other is the hero’s last aria in the third act “Misero pargoletto”. These two pieces were thus preserved in Leo’s revised score of 1741.

José María Domínguez

Title : The Neapolitan Academy of ‘Arconte Frisseo’: New light on the sources of Italian opera ca. 1700

In March 1698, the Spanish viceroy of Naples, Duke of Medinaceli, opened the first meetings of an Academy of Arts and Sciences that had been newly established in the region. Two years previously, whilst acting as Spain’s ambassador to the Holy See, the duke had entered the Arcadian Academy in Rome with the nickname ‘Arconte Frisseo’. The Neapolitan Academy may have been founded according to the model of the Roman one. The recent publication of the records from these meetings of the Neapolitan Academy allows us to explore in more depth the relationship between musical and intellectual milieux in Naples at that time. Although none of the surviving records nor any other related sources provides any direct reference to the performance of music in such fora, it is my claim that there was a significant link between this Academy and certain musical performances sponsored by Medinaceli. Working within the conceptual frame of ‘humanistic patronage’ devised by Claudio Annibaldi, this paper will discuss three particular pieces of evidence that permit such a claim to be made: 1. A previously unknown essay on music theory, read at the Academy by Nicolò Cirillo in 1701. 2. The fact that several of the operas performed both at Rome and Naples and related to Medinaceli focus on historical personages who were also discussed on the lectures by various academics. 3. The philosophical and aesthetic ideas developed by the academics that were reflected in these operas, and that eventually influenced the literary reforms of Metastasio.

Valeria De Lucca

Title : The Teatro Colonna: Social, Financial, and Artistic Aspects of a Roman Theater (1675-1689)

The holy year 1675 marked the end of the short and rather unsuccessful venture of the Teatro Tordinona, the first commercial theater “alla moda di Venezia” opened in Rome in 1671. Scholars have long considered the years that followed the closure of this theatre as one of the “darkest ages” for musical theater in Rome. A more attentive look at operatic productions after 1675, however, shows that several semi-private theatres rose like phoenixes from the ashes of Tordinona. Among these, the theatre in the palace of Prince Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna was one of the most active. I will begin my paper by exploring the social and financial underpinnings of Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna’s enterprise and his collaboration with impresario Filippo Acciaioli especially focusing on their relationship after 1682, when a theatrical space designated ad hoc in the Colonna Palace was built for the new commercial venture. I will then turn to the repertory of the theatre, examining the ways in which the operas performed reflected Colonna’s tastes and musical interests. Finally, I will argue that the shift that occurred in Rome after 1675 from court patronage tout cour to a new model of commercial enterprise reflects a crucial phase in the history of patronage, in which the transformation in the relationship between audience, patron, work, visual space, and musical phenomenon led to a more modern conception of opera.

Aneta Markuszewska

Title : Il figlio delle selveby C. S. Capecego (1652-1728) – the Arcadian Tarzan?

The d ramma per musica Il figlio delle selve by C. S. Capecego opens the cycle of eight drammi per musica written by the poet for the theatre of the former Polish queen Marie Casimire Sobieska (who resided at Rome in 1699-1714). Originally composed for the archduchess Marie Antonina of Austria, Electress of Bavaria in 1687 it was rewritten to suit the needs of the audience in Palazzo Zuccari and performed there in 1708 with the music probably by Alessandro Scarlatti. The libretto contains some old elements like prologue and occurrence of serious and comic characters in one scene (the device Capece resigns in the following librettos) however, it was probably this work that made him one of the members of the Roman Accademia dell’Arcadia. The main character in Il figlio delle selve is a young man from the forest, until now untouched by culture, science, wanting human experience. Capece created therefore a mythical Arcadian, the early version of modern Tarzan forced to fast cognition of the people’s world. The knowledge about the world comes from two opposite sources, yet. The paper seeks to find the answer what Il figlio delle selve was for its audience – a kind of guide oriented to young people (dramma was dedicated to Maria Casimira, a granddaughter of Polish queen of the same name), the myth of the eternal return, final abandonment of Arcadia or maybe an unintentional joke of it?

Opera in France and Brazil

Antonia L. Banducci

Title : Acteurs as Lully’s Muses?: The Case for Marie Le Rochois

In the numerous studies of Jean-Baptiste Lully’s operas, scholars have overlooked the striking fact that the same three acteurs, Beaumavielle (basse-taille), Du Mesny (haute-contre) and Le Rochois performed together in Prosperpine (1680) and premiered prominent or leading roles in Persée (1682), Amadis de Gaule (1684), and Roland (1685). Du Mesny as Renaud and possibly Beaumavielle as Hidraot premiered Armide (1686) with Le Rochois, and Du Mesny played opposite her in Acis et Galatée (1686). Could these performers have influenced the operas that Lully and his librettists created? This paper, through its focus on the roles Le Rochois performed, suggests an affirmative answer. Contemporary accounts laud Le Rochois’s expressive acting as well as singing. All of Lully’s roles for her require these abilities. But a chronological comparison of her roles leads one to conclude that Lully responded to Le Rochois’s early operatic successes by composing increasingly dramatic music for her. His Armide and Galatée roles feature highly expressive vocal lines. They also include the increased presence of long ritournelles and preludes that demand strong acting skills. Plot oddities generated by the three other roles that Le Rochois premiered—Mérope in Persée, Arcabonne in Amadis and Angélique in Roland—have perplexed scholars. The hypothesis that Lully and his librettists created Le Rochois’s roles with her skills in mind not only helps to explain these libretto anomalies, but also provides a new key to understanding the development of what scholars refer to as Lully’s “mature” style.

Ana Stefanovic

Title : Armide and its ”Suites”: question of libretto

This paper analyses the libretto of Quinaults’s and Lully’s last opera: Armide (1686) -one of the crucial moments in the development of French baroque opera – as well as two librettos which followed: Suite d’Armide ou Jérusalem délivrée by Hilaire-Bernard de Longepierre which served as a basis for the opera by Philippe d’Orléans (1704) and Renaud ou La suite d’Armide by Simon-Joseph Pellegrin, composed by Henry Desmerest (1722). Both of these librettos were conceived as sequels to Armide in the aspect of the line of action, as stories of “what happened after” the famous intrigue which, in relation to the original episode from Tasso’s Gerusalemme liberata was not, in Quinault’s and Lully’s interpretation, taken to its conclusion. These two librettos, created later as a fruit of the intention to complete the story of Rinaldo and Armida in French tragédie en musique, established multiple and interesting referential relations with the text which had, for them, a status of a predecessor and a paragon. In this paper, these relations are examined through disposition and relations of literary topoi, through various modalities of mise en intrigue, and also through hyper-textual relations to the text of Quinault’s Armide, including elements of inter-textuality; as well as through specific differences which are established, owing to new layers or units of meaning in both later librettos, in relation to the referential text. Finally, the relation between literal and allegorical meanings/layers in Armide and its “Suites”, reflects the changes that happened in the genre of tragédie en musique, as well as changes in the general, cultural context at the turn of the XVII century.

Alberto José Vieira Pacheco

Title : Dramatic occasional music in the Luso-Brazilian Empire of the 18th century

At the beginning of the 18th century, the exploitation of gold found in Brazil provided the Portuguese court with unprecedented wealth, which, in turn, led to a considerable increase in musical output. It is in this context that the Italian style was gradually introduced, both through the contracting of musicians in Italy, among whom mention should be made of Domenico Scarlatti and David Perez, and by sending young Portuguese musicians for advanced training at the Italian conservatoires. With this italianisation of Portuguese musical taste, there was a massive increase in the production of celebratory dramatic odes, serenatas, cantatas and other types of occasional music, for performance both at court and in the public theatres, as part of the commemorations of royal birthdays, name-days, births and marriages. This musical output was of great political and social importance, to the extent that it was used as a tool for the representation and legitimisation of royal power both in Portugal and in the vast overseas dominions of the Portuguese colonial empire. It is not by chance that in the gold-producing cities of Brazil, the production of occasional works was promoted by local administration. This paper aims precisely to describe the rich output of dramatic occasional music in the Luso-Brazilian Empire during the reigns of King João V (1707-1750) and of his son King José I (1750-1777), examining their dramatic and musical characteristics and drawing attention to their usefulness in the process of legitimisation of royal power.

Rosana Marreco Brescia

Title : The Opera House of Ouro Preto, Brazil (1770)

Operatic activity played a very important role in Portuguese society during the 18th century; in particular, in the wealthy wealthy region of Minas Gerais in Portugese-colonised Brazil. At the end of the 17th century, a vast quantity of gold was found which transformed modest villages and established considerably cultivated societies within them. Portuguese comedies (called operas) were known in all the major cities of the province. This was especially the case in its capital, Villa Rica (renamed Ouro Preto in 1822); here, theatrical activity was the center of secular social life, where local artists, the majority free half-caste men and women, were paid well for their jobs in the performing arts. The Ouro Preto theatre was built in 1770 and it is a very rare, and therefore precious, example of Luso-American theatres; it still preserves its original space and conserves very important information concerning the manner in which these ‘come! dies’ were performed. It follows Italian baroque theatre typology and presents all the major characteristics of Portuguese theatres built throughout the century. It is a unique example of 18th-century theatre architecture, not only in the Luso-Brazilian world but also throughout all American colonies. This paper aims to present the history of the Opera House of Ouro Preto, its repertoire, artists, environment, and architecture during its first decades, and assesses the importance of theatre and opera in the development of Brazilian society.

11.30am – 1.00pm

Henry Purcell

Andrew Pinnock and Bruce Wood

Title : COME YE SONS OF ART – AGAIN Recycling Purcell odes in Purcell opera

Scholars have long been aware that a few individual movements which Henry Purcell first composed for performance in an ode setting recur in one or other of his operas (re-used with or without permission). The implications for editors are well understood. Doubtful passages in the ode versions can be corrected with reference to operatic alternatives, and vice versa. More generally, because most of the odes are accurately datable they supply non-controversial stylistic evidence which can be used to help date other pieces not so accurately locatable within the overall Purcell chronology. For Purcell, however – rather than his modern editors, biographers and interpreters – the odes had a different, more creative purpose. They served as test-beds allowing him and his performer colleagues to try out new ideas before transferring what they took to be the best of them to the operatic stage. This paper re-evaluates Purcell’s odes as sketchbooks for opera, throwing new light on his compositional methods and on the logistical and economic interconnections between the court and theatrical music worlds.

Bryan White

Title : Letter from Aleppo: dating the Chelsea School performance of Dido and Aeneas

A letterbook of Rowland Williams, an English merchant in Aleppo, containing his correspondence with a number of amateur musicians in London, has been found to provide new evidence on the performance of Dido and Aeneas at Josias Preist’s School for Girls in Chelsea. Amongst Sherman’s letters is one that specifically describes music from Purcell’s opera, and clearly links it with a performance at Priest’s school. The wording of the letter is suggestive of the type of event at which Dido was given, one at which it was not apparently the sole focus of the entertainment. Sherman’s letter can be cross-referenced with others from the Verney papers which include correspondence between Edmund and John Verney commenting on entertainments at Preist’s School. These letters allow us to confidently revise the likely date for the performance of Dido at Priest’s School, speculate more specifically about the nature of the event at which it was performed, and to learn something about keyboard adaptations of Purcell’s theatre music.

Rebecca Herissone

Title : ‘To entitle himself to ye Composition’: Investigating Concepts of Authorship and Originality in Seventeenth-Century English Ceremonial Music

The creative culture of the seventeenth century is difficult to penetrate from the perspective of modern times: while today our understanding of creativity assumes the primacy of the author, and privileges both imagination and originality, it is far from clear that such concepts were always relevant in the seventeenth century. Drawing on recent research in related disciplines, this paper seeks to examine some of the evidence about creative approaches taken by English composers during the Restoration and to reflect on what they can tell us about authorship and invention. It focuses on two intriguing case studies: the first traces the complex history of Carminum Praeses, an Oxford Act Song, which seems to have been adapted, extended, and recomposed by as many as three composers over twenty-five years; the second investigates two odes linked to the royal court—Welcome happy day and Welcome glorious day—which share an opening verse even though the musician who claimed ownership of the latter ode, Daniel Purcell, evidently did not compose the former. Whether such examples demonstrate collaboration, theft, or a kind of borrowing considered entirely acceptable during the period is a question rendered difficult to answer by a series of errors made by modern scholars in assessing the sources of these pieces. Such mistakes only serve to illustrate the conceptual difficulty we have today in understanding how music was created in the past, and highlight the need for us to reassess what it meant to be a composer in the seventeenth century.

Music, Society and Literature in the German Baroque

Stephen Rose

Title : The musicians’ tales: fiction and truth in the musician-novels of the German Baroque

In the closing decades of the seventeenth century, a series of novels by and about musicians were published in Germany, including tales by Johann Beer, Johann Kuhnau, Wolfgang Caspar Printz and Daniel Speer. The novels are rich in colourful detail about the education, working lives and social position of musicians. Yet they cannot necessarily be read at face value. Most of these narratives were published under pseudonyms, with the authors assuming the identity of musicians of lower status. Often the novels are satirical, holding a distorting mirror up to musical life of the time. This paper untangles the unique blend of reportage, autobiography, artifice and humour that defines the musician-novels. I will show how their language and motifs overlap with those found in archival documents, autobiographies and music theory of the period. My aim is to probe the relationship between the novels and ‘musical reality’ (or, at the very least, musical life as narrated by others), in order to determine the value of these sources to a music historian. In so doing, my paper sheds light on the relationship between mask and reality that was so typical of the Baroque era.

Tanya Kevorkian

Title : Writings on Church Music as a Source for the Social History of German Baroque Music

Between the 1680s and the 1750s dozens of writers, including Johann Mattheson, Gottfried Ephraim Scheibel, Caspar Ruetz, Georg Motz, and Gottfried Vockerodt published treatises on church music. This paper inquires into the value of these treatises as sources for the social history of Baroque music. Many were polemical in nature, staking out an argument in the Pietist-Orthodox dispute. They include much material about how music should sound, and what its goals should be; they also quote extensively from Scripture and church-historical texts. Thus, the amount of material that discusses actual musicians and musical practice is often limited. However, the authors also include real-life examples that offer insight into actual music-making. These examples are usually provided in order to make a particular point, and cannot necessarily be taken at face value, but they do provide a window on practices. Further, some writers – Ruetz and Mattheson stand out here – do dwell extensively on musical practice, offering insight into a variety of styles of music. Thus, in an extended footnote Ruetz gives a detailed history of the Lübeck Abendmusiken; and in Der vollkommene Kapellmeister and other writings, Mattheson includes much information about singing practices. One key to gathering social-history information is to read a large volume of these writings.

Anthony Alms

Title : The Trauerspiel as Dramatic Prototype for Early German Opera

This paper offers a fresh perspective on the early development of German opera as drama. A number of German humanists in the seventeenth century—among them Martin Opitz, Georg Harsdörffer, and Johann Löhner—recognized opera’s potential as an allegorical vehicle for the expression of a particularly Germanic worldview informed by Lutheranism. The realization of this allegorical potential, however, proved problematic with respect to drama. Unchecked by reality, or dramatic realism, allegory yields the abstract qualities associated with spiritual pastorals like Seelewig (1644, by Harsdörffer and Staden) and Die triumphirende Treu (1679, by Löhner and Heuchelin), which are not particularly engaging, dramatically speaking. If allegory gives way too completely to the imperatives of drama, on the other hand, the inner message tends to get lost, as happens in Dafne (1627, by Opitz and Schütz). What was needed was a middle path, a genre that could incorporate an inner, sacred message into a convincing musical drama without overwhelming the audience with theology. The Trauerspiel (literally, “mourning play”), which typically incorporates a Protestant moral message into a realistic, dramatically convincing tragedy, provided a perfect model. I posit the Trauerspiel as the source of a new operatic dramaturgy in which religious allegory was successfully merged with dramatic realism. This new dramaturgy is examined in Die beständige Argenia (1680, by Johann Meder). Connections are explored as well to the operas of Reinhard Keiser, whose librettist Berthold Feind greatly admired the plays of Andreas Gryphius, author of the most powerful examples of the Trauerspiel.

The Italian Cantata

Giulia Giovani

Title : Roman cantatas editions of Francesco Gasparini and Tommaso Bernardo Gaffi

“Cantata da camera” repertory is tied to thousands manuscript sources. Nevertheless there are around 120 printed sources produced in Italy from 1620 (year of first publication of Alessandro Grandi’s Cantade et arie, today dispersed) till 1750 (approximatively the decadence’s year of the genre in Italy). This proves a parallel, even though smaller, diffusion of the genre by print. The principal cities involved in this phenomeno are in northern Italy (particularly Bologna and Venice) with a flourishing editorial market and a noble and variegate patronage. Coming down along the peninsula, the edition number decrease progressively. In Rome printers were concentrates on sacred production, only four collections of profane cantatas were produced by typographical workshop of Robletti and Mascardi. Robletti’s volumes consist in strophic arias (but with nomination of “Cantata”) composed by Giovanni Battista Fasolo (1627) and Domenico Crivellati (1628). More interesting are the two cantata’s editions by Francesco Gasparini and Tommaso Bernardo Gaffi, printed by Giacomo and Innocenzo Francesco Silvestri (heirs of the well-known roman publisher Mascardi) in 1695 and in 1700. The two authors were both pupils of the roman composer Bernardo Pasquini and is probably him who induced they to print the works already circulating in manuscript source (as Gaffi specified in the dedication of his volume and testified by manuscripts in US Wc, B Bc, D Shs). Starting from edition’s analysis, the research want to compare it with correspondents manuscript sources and clarify relations beetween the two composers, Bernardo Pasquini and their patrons: Emilia Carafa and Francesco Maria Ruspoli.

Teresa M. Gialdroni

Title : The Urbania manuscripts: a study in cantata transmission

In the Library of Urbania (Marche, Italy) six musical manuscripts containing seventeenth century arias and cantatas are preserved. They belonged to an aristocratic family of Apecchio, (Marche), the Ubaldini. However, on one of them, containing cantatas by Cossoni (or Caproli?), Giovanni Bonaventura Viviani and Legrenzi, there is the note “ex libris Antonij Barbarini”, and another one is signed “Giuseppe Bianchi”. The six manuscripts are heterogeneous under different ways: material aspects (size, paper, hands) and age. In fact, two of them contain a repertory belonging to the first half of Seventeenth Century, two to the second half, and the remaining two contain arias from early Eighteenth Century operas. Concerning the authors of the music, the volumes with the elder repertory does not mention any name, but a cross examination of the content allows to identify some musicians: Orazio Michi, Bellerofonte Castaldi, Stefano Landi, Giovanni Rovetta. The two middle volumes contain cantatas by Bassani, Pirro Albergati Capacelli, Carlo Caproli, Giovanni Legrenzi and G. Bonaventura Viviani. The last two volumes contain opera arias: one by Giacomo Perti, and the second arias without any indication that I have identified as part of operas performed in Venice in 1704. My paper intends to reconstruct the origin of these manuscripts, to investigate the criteria used for their assemblage, and possibly to identify the authors of the other anonymous compositions. A thorough investigation of these hitherto little-known manuscripts may shed new light on the diffusion and transmission of music in Italy during the Seventeenth and early-Eighteenth centuries.

Tiziana Affortunato

Title : The cantatas of Carlo Caproli in the manuscript Q.47 of the Bologna Musical Library: musical setting and textual problems

Carlo Caproli (1615-20 – 1673 ca.), composer, violinist and organist, known as “del Violino” for the quality of his performances, lived in Rome at the service of the most noteworthy families in the city – as the Pamphili and the Barberini – where he held a role as instrumentist for important institutions, as the Collegio Germanico, S. Luigi dei Francesi, and the Congregazione dei Musici di Roma (later Accademia di S. Cecilia). In 1653 Cardinal Mazzarino invited him in Paris for the performances of his opera Le Nozze di Peleo e di Teti (music lost, text by F. Buti); he remained there until 1654 and received from Louis XIV the title of Maître de la Musique du cabinet du Roy. During his lifetime Caproli was generally recognized as one of the most interesting composers of vocal music of his generation (Berardi in his Ragionamenti musicali (1681) mentions him before Rossi and Carissimi); his music, however, reached us only in manuscript. His cantata production (about 95 of his cantatas are currently known) is found in miscellaneous collection with works by other Roman cantata composers such as Rossi, Carissimi, Savioni and Tenaglia. A careful analysis of text and music in Caproli’s cantatas may help understanding the complexity and diversification of this genre during the middle Baroque period. More specifically, the cantatas in the manuscript Q. 47 in the Bologna library are an excellent example of the various kind of musical solutions that we summarize under the term “cantata”. This study, through a selection of pieces of the Roman composer, aims to show this pluralism in Caproli’s Cantatas, and their peculiar adherence to the text.

2.00pm – 4.00pm


Jasmin Cameron

Title : Beyond Mere Plagiarism: Vivaldi’s Use of Giovanni Maria Ruggieri’s Scores

The Ruggieri manuscripts are found among the 27 volumes of music that once belonged to Vivaldi and today are located in the Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria in Turin. They are listed as ‘supplementary’ works in Ryom’s Vivaldi catalogue: RV Anh. 23 (Gloria in D) and RV Anh. 24 (Gloria in G). Giovanni Maria Ruggieri himself is a rather obscure figure, whose biographical details are limited in number. This paper will present a brief update on recent archival research carried out on the biography of this composer before focusing on the Ruggieri-Vivaldi stylistic relationship. I will suggest that Vivaldi went ‘beyond’ the realms of mere plagiarism when he borrowed from Ruggieri’s Gloria in D for his own Gloria settings (RV 588 and RV 589) and that these scores also provided him with stylistic models. Thus, Vivaldi’s preservation of Ruggieri’s scores allows us insight into a composer studying his trade. From this, we are able to see how styles of writing are handed down from one composer to the next and to witness how a composer then refines a style and then adds those elements which then make that style uniquely his.

Beth Glixon and Micky White

Title : Vivaldi’s First Opera?: Girolamo Polani’s Creso tolto a le fiamme of 1705

Vivaldi’s fame as an opera composer has reached new heights in recent years with the release of numerous recordings of his dramatic works. It has always been assumed that Vivaldi’s first opera premiered in Vicenza in 1713, with his debut on the Venetian stage occurring the following year at the Teatro S. Angelo. A document recently discovered by Micky White, however, shows Vivaldi claiming to have written the overture, closed numbers, as well as some recitative for Creso tolto a le fiamme (S. Angelo, Autumn 1705), previously ascribed to the composer Girolamo Polani, a singer at Saint Mark’s Chapel. Our paper introduces this important new document, as well as another that points to an additional collaboration with Polani. Further new information reveals the impresarios for that season as well as a number of the singers who performed in Creso. Vivaldi’s introduction into the operatic world in 1705 poses a number of intriguing and important questions, and shows him in an entirely new light. At a time when he had only recently begun his work at the Pietà, and had published only one work of instrumental chamber music, he had found a way to gain entry, if only anonymously, into Venice’s famed operatic theatres. Moreover, his contributions to Creso may have constituted his first extended vocal composition. Now we must wonder why Vivaldi’s official Venetian operatic premiere would not occur at the same Teatro S Angelo for nine more years.

Michael Talbot

Title : Vivaldi’s First Opera? Clues from a London Pasticcio

Micky White’s recent discovery in Venice of documents recording legal action taken by Vivaldi against Girolamo Polani for non-payment of money due to him for having ghost-written all the closed numbers, some of the recitative and the sinfonia for the opera Creso tolto a le fiamme, staged at the S. Angelo theatre in 1705, makes it imperative to investigate further the truth or otherwise of his claim. Potential additional evidence is at hand in Walsh’s collection of ‘Songs’ relating to a Haymarket pasticcio of 1714, Creso, re di Lidia, which can be seen from a comparison of the two librettos to have used the 1705 Creso as its ‘core’ text prior to the introduction of the usual cuts, alterations, importations and newly composed material. Of the twenty-four published vocal numbers, five, with texts unaltered from the 1705 Creso, are candidates for Vivaldi’s (or, though less credibly, Polani’s) authorship. Finding suitable comparators for these five numbers in order to identify stylistic affinities that might advance the claim of either man is difficult. Of Polani, only six chamber cantatas appear to survive, and these date from much later. From Vivaldi c.1705 we have only his trio sonatas, Op. 1 – no vocal music by him survives until the next decade, and no identified operatic music until 1713. In the five numbers a few hints of Vivaldi’s idiolect emerge, but there are also some counter-indications, so that in the end judgement has to be suspended. Perhaps the pasticcio used only the text, not the music, of the original opera.

Vivian S. Montgomery

Title : “Agitata infido flatu:” Probing Vivaldi’s Timbral and Structural Characterization in Juditha Triumphans

A single aria, intended by librettist Jacobi Cassetti to be sung by Judith in Antonio Vivaldi’s 1716 Juditha Triumphans, was ultimately composed for and assigned to the character of Holofernes by Vivaldi in his manuscript. The published libretto, however, continued to assign the text of “Agitata infido flatu” to Judith. This discrepancy invites examination of a bold scheme of characterization identifiable in Vivaldi’s setting, which crafts psychological texture with an immense lexicon of sonic, thematic, and harmonic effects. While only limited scholarship has focused on this “sacred military oratorio” Juditha Triumphans, disagreement over the character intended to sing “Agitata infido flatu” can be found in passing discussion of the work by Michael Talbot, Eleanor Selfridge-Field, Alberto Zedda, Dennis & Elsie Arnold, and Howard Smither. Vivaldi’s reassignment (and transformation) of this aria’s text is a pivotal compositional decision. The composer’s choice ingeniously places the aria, with its pathological edge, at the center of a graphic structure made up of three interwoven elemental threads in his treatment of the Judith/Holofernes dynamic. Each of these threads (timbral/textural, melodic, and large-scale harmonic) outlines an exchange of agency that occurs between the two characters in the course of the oratorio. While a short talk addressing this topic must, by necessity, focus primarily on the issues of allocation and the composer’s development of character that stem from the one disputed aria, attention will be drawn to the aria’s crucial position within these larger schemes.

Restoration and Early Georgian Britain

Corrina Connor

Title : ‘For nothing is made of the words at all’? Pelham Humfrey, the Penitential Anthem, and the Rhetoric of the Passionate Air

In several analyses of the penitential anthems of Pelham Humfrey it appears that Humfrey achieved the extraordinary emotional immediacy of his music by such harmonic means as sudden unprepared dissonances. These existing comprehensive analyses also take an essentially formalist approach, finding and correlating harmonic and motivic components of each anthem to demonstrate the unity and cohesion of Humfrey’s works. However, a comparison of this material with the experience of hearing the anthems themselves raises the question of whether Humfrey used harmony as an expressive means unto itself, or if there was an underlying aesthetic and rhetorical plan or logic involved in his compositional processes. This paper makes two propositions: the first is that by using a framework of rhetorical tropes more usually utilised when considering English music written two generations before Humfrey reached maturity, a connection that can be made between the ‘rhetoric’ of Humfrey’s anthems and the musical/rhetorical language of the early seventeenth century (particularly with reference to the concept of the prosopopoeia). The second proposition explores the oratorical roles of both the composer and the performer in the execution of a Humfrey anthem as a prosopopoeia, and the wider implications that such considerations have for ‘rhetorical’ performance of Humfrey, and other works in this genre.

Estelle Murphey

Title : John Eccles and Queen Anne: Servants of Ceremony

In 1702 Queen Anne ascended the British throne, and intended, as the ‘nursing mother’ of her country, to reunite the court with its people through the revival of royal ceremony. The Queen’s well-documented love and profound knowledge of the minutiae of court ceremony naturally caused her to take a great interest in the execution of the ceremonial procedures, preferring to emphasise those occasions more personal to her, such as her birthday. It seems no coincidence, then, that John Eccles, Master of Her Majesty’s Musick, began to supply the court with biannual odes for the celebration of the Queen’s birthday and the New Year—unlike his predecessors, who had held no compositional role. Interestingly, due to monarchical indisposition as well as political and social upheaval, Eccles’s chronology of odes contains numerous gaps, the composer even reusing previous odes on two occasions. However, it is in this reuse that some of the most interesting emendations occur, apparently with a view to express his sovereign’s aspiration to revive the role of ceremony in court life. This paper will examine Eccles’s ode production both in the general context of his political obligations and also in the finer context of his textual emendations to particular odes. It will also discuss the ironic decline of ceremony during the reign of Queen Anne and her ultimate failure to exude the British unity she sought to embody.

Kerry Houston

Title : I heard a voice from heaven: Music and repertoire transmission at the Dublin cathedrals in the age of Dean Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

Despite its island location on the western extremity of Europe, the Dublin cathedrals of Christ Church and St Patrick’s have supported choral foundations since the twelfth century. However, with the exception of one organ book now held in the library of Durham cathedral (MS B1), no post-Restoration music manuscript sources have survived from the Dublin cathedrals copied before the early eighteenth century. It is possible, however, to deduce the probable repertoire at St Patrick’s and Christ Church cathedrals at the resumption of choral services in the1660s and throughout the period when Jonathan Swift was dean of Saint Patrick’s (1713-45). This paper surveys printed and manuscript material which yields clues to trace repertoire in the immediate post-Restoration period and follows the rapid development and expansion of musical taste at the cathedrals in the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth centuries. The repertoire is considered in the wider context of cathedral music in the British Isles and probable transmission routes are investigated.

4.30pm – 6.00pm

Bach Network 1

Elise Crean

Title : ‘From Stölzel to Bach: Practischer Beweiß and the Fourteen Canons’

The Fourteen Canons (BWV 1087) of Johann Sebastian Bach, which were written between c.1742 and c.1746, occupy a somewhat paradoxical position within the composer’s œuvre. On the one hand, they are undoubtedly part of Bach’s evident preoccupation with the genre of canon in the final decade of his life. On the other hand however, the sheer intensity of this canonic survey is not matched by any of the other works that are similarly based on strict counterpoint. Indeed, the Fourteen Canons offer a rare example of and insight into ‘Bach the theorist’. Such distinctive characteristics would seem to suggest that an external source may have acted as a model and stimulus for their composition, which I propose to be the hitherto unconsidered Practischer Beweiß, a canonic treatise by Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel published in 1725. This paper will highlight a number of intriguing correspondences between these works, such as the types of canon included by both composers and the manner in which Bach expanded upon the guidelines Stölzel provided regarding the pitch intervals that could be used for canonic imitation. The meaning of the abbreviation ‘&c.’ which is found at the end of the Fourteen Canons will be considered in relation to a number of remarkably similar indications which occur in Practischer Beweiß. Finally, the means by which Bach could have come into contact with this contemporary treatise will be discussed.

Yo Tomita

Title : Reading soul from manuscripts: some observations on performance issues in J. S. Bach’s habits of writing his music

Johann Sebastian Bach is well known for his beautiful musical calligraphy. When transferring his musical ideas to his pen and paper, the composer selected – presumably instinctively – all the essential information about the music as well as what should be excluded as subjected by the convention of his time. However, there are some aspects of music that Bach seems to have conveyed more than the usually expected details of musical ideas as he was also engaged in the calligraphic activities. One of these is the beaming of notes, particularly quavers. In his scores, quavers are often beamed beyond the beat unit of a crotchet, often appearing as if to indicate the way the particular line should be phrased. My recent study on his autograph manuscript of the Well-Tempered Clavier, part 2 (BWV 870-893) shows that there is a strong tendency that Bach often conveyed (perhaps subconsciously) this level of nuance in his notation especially when he appears to have been engaged in calligraphic activities. Through the careful assessment of the evidence, the paper considers the validity of such observations, and proposes a new additional way of interpreting the composer’s intentions.

The Italian Style in England

Sandra Mangsen

Title : The Lady’s Entertainment and Babell’s Delight: Arias for the keyboard 1708–1717

Between 1708 and 1717 John Walsh published four volumes of music for keyboard, entitled The Lady’s Entertainment. The first two contain a mixture of “song tunes in the operas” and “airy lessons, … preludes and toccatas.” The song tunes come exclusively from operas (pasticcios, in the main) presented on the London stage. One imagines amateur lady harpsichordists eagerly snapping them up and going home to recall at the keyboard the popular entertainments they had enjoyed in the theatre. While the anonymous arrangements in the first two volumes of the Lady’s Entertainment were likely accessible to most players, William Babell’s more assured treatment of arias and overtures in the latter two requires a more developed keyboard technique. In his own 1717 collection, Suits of the most celebrated Lessons, Babell not only provided his chosen arias with extravagant ornamentation, but grouped them explicitly into keyboard suites, introducing each with a prelude. Here the once simple keyboard versions have become vehicles for virtuoso display, so much so that Hawkins insisted only Babell himself was able to play them. Nowadays, we tend to consign such ‘distortions’ to the basement, preferring to receive our eighteenth-century works in a more pristine state, but in their day Babell’s arrangements surely helped to keep such music alive beyond the confines of the theatre. In this paper, you will hear several of these keyboard arias, presented on their own terms as authentic recollections of what happened on stage.

Alan Howard

Title : Composition and Improvisation in William Babell’s twenty-four ‘Solos’

The two volumes of ‘solos’ for treble instrument and thoroughbass by William Babell (c.1690-1723), published posthumously by John Walsh in around 1725, are best known for their ‘proper Graces adapted to each Adagio’, advertised on the title pages as the composer’s own. The works contain much else of interest, however, and this paper begins with an analysis of two dance movements that are obviously related by a process of revision. It is just about possible to establish which work was the earlier, though the decision demands a critical attitude towards common notions of revision and the creative process that derive from later aesthetic and stylistic assumptions. Since the revisions themselves are largely improvisatory in character, this analysis further strengthens the impression, most obvious in Babell’s elaborate graces, that his status as a virtuoso performer is crucial to the understanding of his compositional techniques. Furthermore, Babell’s improvisatory methods are heavily reliant on basic thoroughbass progressions, an observation that becomes even more apparent as the focus of the paper shifts to examine the dance movements of the solos as a group. The extent to which these dances rely on the same basic formal and tonal models invites comparison with German theoretical discussions of the use of the same bass patterns in the composition of multiple dances. Babell’s methods might well illuminate those of more illustrious contemporaries, as well as deepening our understanding, on a smaller scale, of the relationship between performance, improvisation and composition in the early eighteenth century.

Stefano Aresi

Title : “The skilfull Porpora” goes Romantic: a Baroque Composer’s Traces in London Repertoire, Performance Practice and Music History

Scholars had usually reduced Porpora’s activity for London to the relationship between the composer’s and Haendel’s output in the field of dramma per musica. If, on the one hand, this can seem obvious for the historical (but also social) underground of the occurence, on the other hand Porpora’s artistic evaluation of the contributions (short and long-term ones) to the musical life of the city can still mostly seen as curio-hunting in Haendel studies. Opera was the most important business in Porpora’s career in London, but not the only one: we cannot understimate, e.g., the artistic value of his instrumental works (specially the Sinfonie da camera op. II and the Cello Concerto in G) and of his cantatas (the Nuovamente composte opre di musica vocale, e.g.). Nevertheless, the aim of the present paper is not to enumerate Porpora’s works for London and depict their most evident distintive features, but try to show for the first time some historical evidences of long term influence by his output in Britain, both in collections’ creation and in private and public concert life. Performance, printing and copying of his music for years after the departure from Englan, the honours given to the coposer’s skill by William Savage, Richard Stevens, Benjamin Cooke jr., the critical approach by Burney and Hawkins, as the success of the singing method promoted by Corri, show the desire of English music-lovers and professional of the second half of the XVIIIth century and the first one of the XIXth to enter in relation with Porpora, trying to understand him, to turn him to account or to run him down, building a link between the flamboyant London experience made by the Neapolitan composer and the very late reading and performances of his music (e.g., for the Sacred Harmonic Society).

Early 17th Century Germany

Bettina Varwig

Title : Enchanting Rituals: Celebrating the Reformation Centenary in 1617

On 31 October 1617, the Protestant German territories mounted extensive celebrations to honour the centenary of the Reformation. Focusing on Heinrich Schütz’s large-scale compositions for the festivities in Dresden, my paper examines the ways in which music participated in the theological and political debates and tensions surrounding the event. Although official Protestant dogma required the abolishment of all unnecessary, excessive or superstitious rites, various rituals were nonetheless retained or introduced into Lutheran practice in order to supplant popular Catholic traditions. Music played a crucial but ambivalent role in the invented ritual of the centenary celebrations: while Lutheran doctrine supposedly endorsed music as a means for propagating the Protestant message, Schütz’s Psalm settings for the 1617 festivities rely surprisingly little on Lutheran melodies or styles, instead adopting the magnificent polychoral idiom that the composer had learnt from the Catholic Gabrieli. Moreover, the prominent martial trumpets and drums could equally have served to affirm secular authority, or else might have constituted an openly aggressive gesture in a tense pre-war atmosphere. Instead of tying the music to any one of these possible meanings, I argue that its vague and sensual qualities (encapsulated in the overwhelming aural experience of the Venetian style) effectively recaptured some of the emotional power of past rituals. Such a reading not only challenges the customary interpretation of Lutheran vocal music as a way to preach Protestant beliefs, but also complicates the familiar narrative of the progressive “disenchantment” of early modern society as a result of a Protestant-inspired rationalism.

Paulina Halamska

Title : Wedding compositions by Tobias Zeutschner (1621–1675)

The present paper deals with three musical pieces written by Tobias Zeutschner, organist and composer active in Breslau (Wroclaw) in the latter half of the 17th century. The following compositions will be discussed: “O daß ich dich meinen Bruder”, a sacred concerto in form of a lyrical dialogue, written and published in 1656; “Der Herr gebe euch vom Tau des Himmel”, a large-scaled sacred concerto (also 1656); finally, “Höret an die Heiratsstiftung jungen Tobie und Sarae” (1659), a short oratorio, surviving only in fragments. All the pieces have been written for wedding celebrations of people belonging to the elites of the protestant Breslau, such as Christoph Bremer and Michael Büttner, cantors at St. Christopher and St. Mary Magdalene, or Fridericus Vicci, pastor, poet and professor at St. Mary Magdalene gymnasium. The choice of literary texts of these works requires particular attention. Verses taken from Psalms are supplemented by a passage from the Song of Songs, the latter here appearing in its primary character of a love poem. Moreover, the oratorio uses the story of the marriage of Tobias and Sarah, taken from a book not included in the protestant Bible, but still strongly present in the culture of the 17th century. The three compositions will be discussed in the context of Breslau city laws and liturgical regulations concerning the wedding ceremonies, as well as of similar pieces coming from the anonymous part of the so-called Bohn Collection (composed of musical manuscripts from the former Breslau City Library, at present at the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin).

Izabela Bogdan

Title : On the Threshold of the Baroque Era. Stylistic Changes in the 17th-Century Repertoire of Königsberg Occasional Music

The first decades of the 17th century witnessed the proliferation of Königsberg occasional music. It was then that cantors and musicians working in the three cities of Königsberg – Altstadt, Kneiphof and Löbenicht – composed the greatest number of epithalamia, funeral pieces and motets for academic celebrations or state events. However, it must be stressed that since the late 1630s the Königsberg repertoire of occasional music shows two separate tendencies. On one hand, the most renowned chapel master Johannes Eccard (1553-1611) and his greatest student Johannes Stobaues (1580-1646) follow the Renaissance tradition, characterised by vocal setting, with only limited role of instruments, and adopting polyphony as the main principle of musical structuring. On the other, Königsberg collections contain pieces by a cathedral cantor Heinrich Albert (1604-1651) and a cantor of Altstadt Johann Weichmann (1620–1652) as well as Georg Huck, Conrad Matthaei and Johann Crüger, whose musical output stylistically opened a new era of the history of music of Ducal Prussia. They introduced a new genre – a Baroque song – homorhythmic, with syllabic text setting and great attention paid to proper accentuation. At the same time Heinrich Albert became a precursor of a new style of composing introducing basso continuo to Königsberg repertoire of occasional music, which marked the breakthrough in the 17th century musical output of the city.

In my paper, I will discuss the development from the Renaissance tradition to Baroque era music, taking as the examples musical, structural and thematic aspects of occasional pieces by Johannes Eccard, Johannes Stobaeus, Heinrich Albert, Johann Weichmann, Georg Huck, Conrad Matthaei and Johann Crüger.

Friday 4th July

9.00am – 11.00am

Performance Practice

Thérèse de Goede

Title : Accompaniment of the arias by Barbara Strozzi

For present day performers, both singers and continuo players, Barbara Strozzi’s arias for solo voice and thorough bass contain many problematic passages. In these passages Strozzi seemed to have bent the compositional rules of her time by transgressing the limits of what was possible and allowed in order to achieve the utmost expression of the text. She was certainly not the only mid-seventeenth century composer to do this. Examples of audacious progressions between the voice and the bass part can also be found in music by, for example, Monteverdi (Venice), Luigi Rossi and Marc’Antonio Pasqualini (both in Rome). But in Strozzi’s music some of these progressions are so outlandish that it seems almost impossible to turn them into a sensible continuo realization. Strozzi’s arias are unfigured. This fact, combined with the problematic passages, offers the continuo player – also in the more moderate passages – a variety of possibilities for the realization. The question I want to discuss is the following: does Barbara Strozzi’s use of some bizarre progressions make her an avant garde composer in her time? If so, should the more conventional progressions in her arias be realized according to the early rules for thorough bass harmonization, or rather along the lines of, for example, Francesco Gasparini? In the presentation I want to discuss theoretical sources that can be related to the vocal solo music of the period under discussion. However, polyphonic material in music by other composers of the same period forms an equally important source of information. In the end, it is sources like these which show us the harmonic language that is spoken during a particular period, in a particular region, or by a particular composer.

Christine Pollerus

Title : Cembalo Obbligato in J. S. Bach’s ‘Amore traditore’

This paper will discuss a somewhat neglected genre of baroque chamber music, the cantatas for solo voice and cembalo obbligato. J. S. Bach’s “Amore traditore” is the only widely known piece but by no means the only one. A certainly incomplete catalogue of at least 30 secular and sacred cantatas, and some more single arias from operas or serenate, will allow cautious conclusions about the chronological development and geographic/stylistic centres of the genre. The varied connections of the parts written out in full with the traditions of thorough bass and the traditions of keyboard sonatas of the time will be under discussion. But my special interest is the changed relationship between the singer and the (no-more-the-accompanist-) solo harpsichordist.

Gregory Barnett

Title : The Violoncello da Spalla and the Eccentricities of Historical Performance Practice

Ten years ago I published an article on the violoncello da spalla, a form of bass violin in use during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The instrument was held horizontally, either on the lap of a seated performer or at chest level with a shoulder strap. The paper proposed here presents further evidence and new conclusions about the shoulder cello, as well as a look at its recent reception. The evidence, mostly iconographic, allows us to pinpoint the use of “spalla” technique to the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and to northern Italy, where it may have predominated. A further point centers on the bow grips used with all forms of bass violin during this time. This detail of the bow helps to trace the development of an eventual cello technique out of competing viol- and violin-family ingredients: the underhand grip associated with viols is almost always coupled with a vertical gamba position of the instrument, while the overhand grip of modern-day cellists occurs overwhelmingly with the horizontal spalla position. In the past few years, the highest-profile performer to take up the instrument, Sigiswald Kuijken, has ascribed it to works of Vivaldi and J. S. Bach. According to my own findings, this is unlikely. I therefore examine the case for Vivaldi and Bach’s having written for the violoncello da spalla and assess its modern reconstructions. My larger aim is to propose the likeliest repertory for the shoulder-held cello and to identify its original performers.

Graydon Beeks

Title : Sir George Smart’s Performance of Handel’s Messiah

Sir George Smart (1776-1867) was one of the most influential English musicians of the first half of the nineteenth century, not least because he was considered an authority on the ‘authentic’ way to perform the music of Handel. In the words of the W.H. Husk, ‘he was much sought after by singers wishing to learn the traditional manner of singing Handel’s airs, which he had been taught by his father, who had seen Handel conduct his oratorios’. Smart was particularly associated with Messiah. He conducted the first English performance to employ Mozart’s additional accompaniments in 1813 and continued to perform the piece for the next half century. Little work has been done on the exact nature of Smart’s performance style in Handel. However, the British Library holds the conducting score and set of performing parts for Messiah used by Smart from 1813, as well as a vocal score of the work into which he wrote ornamentation for the soprano arias at the request of the celebrated Jenny Lind in 1855. This paper uses evidence from these sources, together with information from Smart’s journals and programs and descriptions of his performances, in an attempt to decipher just what his contemporaries heard. Of particular interest are the ways in which Smart modified Mozart’s additional accompaniments to suit the English taste; his use of semi-chorus in certain movements and of only the first-desk strings during many arias; and the nature of the ornamentation supplied for Miss Lind.

Aesthetics and Gender Issues

Heather Hadlock

Title : The Castrato as Phallic Woman

Scholarship on the gendering of castrati in early opera has focused on “effeminacy,” devotion to women and pleasure at the expense of masculine duty and reason. This paper proposes that castrati could also convey gendered meanings about monstrous femininity. In L’Incoronazione di Poppea, the castrato Ottone’s voice and sterile body come to double those of Ottavia, the “frigid and barren” wife whose erotic jealousy turns murderous. In Act II/10, Ottavia orders Ottone to dress as a woman and kill Poppea with his sword, making the castrato her instrument of symbolic rape. Furthermore, she threatens to accuse _him_ of rape, re-casting herself as victim rather than perpetrator of sexualized violence. I link Ottavia’s disturbing fusion of power, aggression, and tragic victimhood to Ferrari’s praise for Anna Renzi in the role as “a monster, who . . . augments the company of the Sirens,” and interpret the castrato as both an embodiment of and scapegoat for spoiled femininity. I further situate this scene within a network of elements Monteverdi explored in the Combattimento (1624). The two works share musical concitato devices and themes of transvestism, sexualized violence to resolve impossible desire, and monstrous femininity. Each scene transforms an image of female aggression (Clorinda armed; Ottavia ordering an assassination) into a safer image of “penetrated woman” (Clorinda stabbed; Ottavia’s fantasy of sexual assault). Yet the Ottavia-Ottone scene remains unresolved: the “armed woman” persists in the wretched person of Ottone. L’Incoronazione resolves the problem through parody: the castrato in his borrowed dress proves an impotent embodimen.

Ayana Smith

Title : Mythology, Iconography and Verisimilitude in Arcadia—The Case of Endymion

Gianvincenzo Gravina’s Discorso sopra l’Endimione (1691) teaches us two important concepts about the creation and perception of verisimilitude according to the aesthetics of the Arcadian Academy: 1) mythology is the most important source of historical truth in literature, and 2) representations in poetry and musical drama should accord with what Gravina calls “commonly held beliefs” in order to prevent “bitterness in the senses of the audience.” In his Discorso, Gravina analyses Alessandro Guidi’s L’Endimione (1688) as an exemplar of verisimilitude among dramatic texts intended for musical setting. This work tells the story of the love of the lowly shepherd Endymion for the moon goddess Cynthia (also known as Diana, the goddess of the hunt). Surprisingly, though, Guidi’s text seems to contradict Gravina’s theory of “commonly held beliefs;” at the most iconic and central moment of the narrative, Guidi uses gender subversion to reverse the traditional mythological narrative and to extend the denouement. Despite such stunning narrative differences, Gravina considers the text to be truthful because it represents characteristics of “feminine love and deception,” erasing any hint of dominant female sexuality and thus allowing the male character to be seen as more heroic, and because the narrative can be read as a Neoplatonic meta-text representing transformation from states of grief to states of happiness through humble unification with divine light. By using principles of iconography, drawing upon sources from Renaissance and Baroque mythography, literature and art (particularly Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, which would have been well known by Guidi’s patron, Queen Christina of Sweden), this paper will provide a narrative standard against which Guidi’s text can be read, will create a broader context for Gravina’s gendered and Neoplatonic interpretations, and will suggest a practical model for approaching verisimilitude in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth- century musical drama.

Places and Institutions

Claire Meyer

Title : Léonard Streel, a music printer in Liège (Belgium) during the 17th century

Except plainsong books, only one music collection was edited in Liège during the first half of the 17th century: the Léonard Hodemont’s Sacri Concentus 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 vocum cum basso ad organum by Léonard Streel in 1630-31. As musical characters are expensive, how does Streel get the material to print the motets? Did he borrow or rent it? Did he rather subcontract this work and to who? The answers to these questions show important elements in connection with trade and cultural relationships between Liège and Köln. Over more, the inventory of the books published by Léonard Streel gives information about secular music performed in Liège during the 17th century. These last pieces of information are even more important because the musical sources known are very rare.

Ilaria Grippaudo

Title : “Pro Computo Musicae”: Sacred Music in Palermo during the Baroque Era

Defining chronological limits and cultural framework of Baroque music in Palermo is quite difficult. In these recent years musicological enquiry has pointed out the particular setting of a “theatre-city” with streets and palaces disposed to create an imaginary scenery for processions, ceremonies and theatrical plays. According this view, “sound” is considered as an important component of the urban context, so that it is impossible to study music without analyzing its mechanisms of production, performance practices and specific customs of local institutions. It is the examination of these fields, and not only of musical work, that forms the core of this renewed interest, based on documentary and archive research. As we can see from extant documentation, religious orders played a striking role in spreading music through every kind of social level. Monastic churches, full of people during the solemn occasions, resounded of voices, instruments and songs; the presence of music was an ineliminable element to lavish demonstration of power and prestige. Jesuits and Theatins organized plays with sumptuous scenes, apparati effimeri that constituted the soul of Baroque feast and the ideal setting for musical performances. Among the celebrations that required a notable increase in musical activities, there was the devotion of Forty Hours – especially promoted by Jesuitic order – during the which a sacred dialogue was performed in public. The aim of this paper is to describe musical life in Palermo’s ecclesiastical institutions between 17th- and 18th-century and by examining data to understand the various forms of musical patronage, both institutional and private.

Jonathan E. Glixon

Title : Sirens of the Lagoon: Singing Nuns at Murano in the Seventeenth Century

In the Baroque era, Venetian nuns, as I have shown elsewhere, did not usually perform music for others to hear. With the public’s desire to hear women’s voices satisfied by the girls of the ospedali, the authorities were able to enforce the modest behavior they felt appropriate for the city’s nuns. In the first half of the seventeenth century, however, one nunnery broke with this pattern: the relatively new Benedictine house of SS. Marco e Andrea (founded in 1496 and rebuilt in 1611-17), on the nearby island of Murano. In the 1620s the talents of several nuns attracted to its church an Italian grand-duke, an Italian duchess, and a French prince, among others. The unauthorized visit of an English noblewoman created a serious problem for the abbess, who nearly lost her post. Twenty years later, the composer Carlo Filago published the only known seventeenth-century music performed by a Venetian nun, once again from SS. Marco e Andrea. In this paper, I examine the silence of Venetian nuns in general, and the exceptional case of SS. Marco e Andrea. I discuss the accounts of visits to the nunnery to hear music, and the legal case ensuing from one of these visits. I also consider the motets of Filago’s 1642 Sacri concerti, composed for one of the nuns there to sing.

David Slusarczyk

Title : Musical activity in the Marian sanctuary of the Pauline Monks on Jasna Góra in the late Baroque

The conference paper aims to characterize the functioning of music in the monastic life of the Pauline Order – one of the greatest music centers of Baroque Poland. The musical band, present in the life of Czestochowa monastery continuously from the 16th to the 20th cent., employed many qualified musicians: some educated in the monastery school, others coming from different places of the country or from abroad. The band flourished in the 18th cent., when it was led by talented bandmasters, achieving high standards of performance as well as building a rich repertoire. The musical works played were written not only by local composers – exceptionally numerous if judged by the country’s standards – but also by foreign ones. The band participated in the daily services regularly conducted in the sanctuary, it also accompanied theological debates as well as meals in the refectory on festive days. The musical pieces preserved in the monastery archives date back to the Baroque period. They include autograph manuscripts (masses, litanies, Passion duets) by composers from Jasna Góra as well as copies of compositions from Bohemia, Austria and the German states. The rich and diverse form of liturgy encouraged frequent music making. Music accompanied pilgrims in churches (as prayer or moments of contemplation), provided the rhythm to the day (‘porches’ – cyclical music from the church tower), it was heard during spectacular processions. Consequently, the composers of Jasna Góra created a large number of diverse musical works, stylistically alluding to the techniques employed by Western European composers of the Baroque period.

11.30pm – 1.00pm

Bach Network 2

Ruth Tatlow

Title : Demystifying myths: Bach and his use of numbers

The mathematical nature of Bach’s works has entered popular myth. Comments about the supposed numerical bases of his compositions date back to his lifetime, and were perpetuated by the authors of the obituary (1754) and by later biographers. Theorists contemporary with Bach also strongly imply that numerical ordering and the use of proportions were important to composers, but tantalisingly they do not say how, or with what a composer should order a composition. Such intriguing allusions to unknown numerical compositional processes must be weighed up against Leibniz’s famous claim (1712) that “music is the result of a mind unconscious that it is calculating”. Logical-looking structural numbers found in Bach’s scores, if these numbers result from Bach’s unconscious, tell us nothing about Bach’s conscious method of composing, and so are limited in their usefulness. This paper describes the stages in a long-term search to prove or disprove the myth of mathematical procedures in Johann Sebastian Bach’s compositions. Working from historical sources and the autograph scores, the initial negative results of my research were overturned by an unexpected breakthrough which led to the formulation of the theory of proportional parallelism with its startling consequences for Bach studies. Bach’s Sei solo for violin (BWV 1001-1006) and the ‘Great Eighteen’ chorales for organ (BWV 651-668) will be used to demonstrate principles from the theory.

Tanja Kovacevic

Title : What’s in a name?—the fate of a hitherto unknown manuscript copy of Bach’s Violin Solos and its role in the reception of the work in England

Bach’s Violin Solos (BWV 1001–1006), dated Cöthen 1720, are among his flagship compositions for unaccompanied solo instruments which remained popular with violinists even after his death. A manuscript copy of the work, which has resurfaced in Manchester, may elucidate the assumption that it was introduced to English audiences in the early 1780s by Johann Peter Salomon (1745–1815) who supposedly acquired a copy from C.P.E. in Berlin. The inscription on the flyleaf, initially thought to read ‘C:J:L: / 79. / 18.V.’, suggested a link with the Moravian minister, composer and collector of music Christian Ignatius Latrobe (1758–1836). Another possible reading of the initials—‘C:F:Z:’—suggests a link with Carl Friedrich Zelter, owner of an extensive collection of Bach’s works, thereby completely changing our perspective. On the inside of the cover is pencilled ‘Spohr’, pointing to the composer and violinist Louis Spohr (1784–1859). The numerous annotations in the score also appear to be his. Although a founding member of the Bach-Gesellschaft, written descriptions of Spohr’s admiration for Bach focus on his Kassel performance of St Matthew Passion, whereas the Violin solos receive only a passing mention.

The source has not been studied by Bach scholars, and is therefore discussed for the first time both in the context of its introduction to England and its owner’s interaction with the manuscript. In my paper I shall attempt to piece together the story of the work’s reception, which the manuscript may unravel.

Ian Mills

Title : From autograph to print: re-examining the transmission history of J.S. Bach’s ‘Great Eighteen’ chorales

The story of the reception history of Bach’s ‘Great Eighteen’ chorales (BWV 651-668) in the 100 years after his death is something of a paradox: on the one hand, the source situation and provenance of the Leipzig autograph (P 271) after 1750 is relatively clear-cut; on the other, the relationship between this autograph score and the first printed edition of fifteen of the chorales, published in 1846, is far from straightforward. To begin with, this paper considers the provenance of two important late eighteenth-century manuscripts owned by Christian Friedrich Penzel (P 1109) and Johann Christoph Oley (P 1160), and their relationship with Bach’s autograph score. In the past 50 years, scholars have suggested that both P 1109 and P 1160 were based, not on the Leipzig autograph, but on an intermediary source, a house copy in the possession of Breitkopf in Leipzig. Secondly, using style analysis and a systematic examination of the errors and variants found in seven of the seventeen complete chorales, I shall revisit this hypothesis in light of our current understanding of Bach’s revision process: an area of scholarship which has been illuminated by recent study.

Keyboard Music in the French-speaking World

Stuart Cheney

Title : French Harpsichord Variations, 1670–1700

Most principal sources of French harpsichord music from the second half of the seventeenth century include variations on dance pieces, and although the practice was as closely associated with harpsichord as with lute and viol, its techniques and procedures have been little studied. In the last three decades of the seventeenth century, the harpsichord works of Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, Jean-Henry D’Anglebert, Nicolas Lebègue, Élisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre, Nicolas Gigault, and Jean-Nicolas Geoffroy feature at least twenty-nine variations, usually in the form of doubles. The genre most commonly varied is the courante, but doubles on sarabandes, gavottes, bourées, and menuets also appear. This study investigates the principal techniques for variation that appear in works by Chambonnières, D’Anglebert, and Lebègue, comparing differing versions of the doubles found in a variety of sources and from the hands of different composers. Procedures for copying and transmitting variations in major manuscripts are also discussed. The specter of Louis Couperin, whose music and reputation continued to circulate for decades after his death in 1661, also figures in this study, since the appearance in 1997 of an Italian manuscript of harpsichord music by Marc Roger Normand Couperin revives questions about the attribution of certain doubles to Louis in well known Parisian sources from the late seventeenth century, including the “Bauyn” and “Parville” manuscripts.

David Chung

Title : The Menetou manuscript: a case study of the effect of patronage on French harpsichord musical style

The Menetou manuscript (US-BE: MS 777) was named after Françoise-Charlotte de Senneterre de Mennetoud (1680¬-1745), an aristocratic musician who displayed her musical talents before Louis XIV at the age of nine. Two years later, in 1691, she became the youngest female composer to have her works engraved, when her Airs sérieux à deux (the subject of a study by Greer Garden (2002)) were issued by the royal printer, Christophe Ballard. The manuscript received its attention in modern history for the first time in 1970 in an article by Alan Curtis who drew attention to the historical significance of the six airs sérieux de mademoiselle de menetou (fols.48v¬52r), but paid no more than lip service to the bulk of the contents, which consist largely of keyboard transcriptions of Lully¹s stage music made by anonymous musicians. The present re-examination of this manuscript provides strong grounds for the view that social and political conditions did influence art, and in a positive way. Both the contents (vocal airs, keyboard transcriptions of Lully and original harpsichord pieces) and the musicians associated with the manuscript (D’Anglebert, Lebègue, Lambert, La Barre and Menetou) were intimately bound up with the court one way or another. In particular, the harpsichord transcriptions, while being products of their own culture (reflecting the concomitant rise of Lully and the harpsichord), also further the progress of musical style, in which orchestral genres (e.g. overture, character piece) and techniques, long enthralled by harpsichordists, led categorically to an expansion of writings and procedures for original keyboard music.

Louis Brouillette

Title : The Organ Manuscript of the Anglican Cathedral of Quebec City: new conclusions

The Organ Manuscript of the Anglican Cathedral of Quebec City (OMACQ), an unique and exceptional document for north American music history, is one of the few Canadian manuscripts with Baroque and pre-classical pieces. A new study invalidates earlier observations and proposes original conclusions, supported by a comparison with other Canadian, American and British music manuscripts that now allow a wider evaluation of its historical significance. This 220-page manuscript contains vocal and instrumental works, divided in seven distinct sections, and mainly written by English and Italian composers of the 17th and 18th centuries. A watermark study, associated with a calligraphic analysis and the contents of each section, proposes a new conception of this document: it is not one manuscript, but five, bound together. Some pieces hold a great importance, as two voluntaries by Maurice Greene (1696-1755), because these works were known until this day by a single source. Among the 22 musical manuscripts kept by the Anglican Cathedral of Quebec City, the OMACQ is the only one copied in the late 18th century and the early 19th century; the 21 others had been constituted between 1844 and 1860. In this paper, the OMACQ will be described and analyzed according to these new perspectives. Then, a sonata by Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) and a concerto by Johann Adolf Hasse (1699-1783) will be compared with other British and American sources. These comparisons will confirm the exceptional importance of the manuscript.

The East Asian Baroque

Peter Allsop, Joyce Lindorff, Yu Zhigang

Title : The Present State of Early Music Studies in China

December 2007 saw the opening of the Early Music Centre at the Department of Musicology of the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing. This is the first such enterprise in the People’s Republic of China and represents a significant landmark in the positioning of Chinese scholarship within the mainstream of historical research into Western music. At a time when popular interest in China has reached an all-time zenith, there is a singular lack of awareness in the West of the status of musicology within Chinese Higher Education in general, and the extent of Early Music studies in particular. The present discussion seeks to shed light on this status, both in mainland China and the islands of Hong Kong and Taiwan. While a new initiative has focussed on medieval music, the main emphasis in recent years has been largely on the baroque period. The astonishingly wide spectrum of interests is reflected in the range of dissertations at both masters and doctoral level. Any such undertaking, however, is likely to encounter problems of resourcing unknown in the West, where access to standard bibliographical research materials, journals and collected editions are all too easily taken for granted. In an attempt to address this urgent need a nation-wide initiative has been instigated to prioritise major writings for translation into Chinese. Inevitably, the wide disparity of cultural background and the inherent dissimilarities between our educational systems give rise to some fundamental differences of emphasis and approach. The postmodernist debate, for instance, seems to have little resonance in China. Of more immediate relevance, the interaction between scholarship and performance which has played such a significant role in shaping a generation of musicological research in the West is as yet largely lacking in China. Period instruments and performers of them are few and far between. Cultural exchange between China and the West extends over many hundreds of years, notably strong in the century after the arrival of the first Jesuit missionary in 1602. Today, the possibilities of communication offer us all the opportunity of close co-operation for our mutual benefit.

David R. M. Irving

Title : ‘Musicalia speculativa, practica, et instrumentorum’: A rediscovered Jesuit treatise from 17th-century Manila

During the course of recent archival work in Madrid, there emerged a late 17th-century manuscript volume from the Philippines, evidently compiled by a Jesuit scholar based at the Colegio de Manila. The volume contains lengthy sets of notes on various academic disciplines and practical subjects that were part of a standard curriculum in Jesuit universities; it also boasts a 116-page text expounding principles of the most current European music theory. This ‘treatise’, entitled ‘Musicalia speculativa, practica, et instrumentorum’, is written in Latin and synthesizes the works of several European theorists, including Kircher, Mersenne, and Mario Bettini. Strikingly, the author makes a number of references to local musical practices, and includes the earliest known musical notation of Tagalog vocal music, a diagramme of a Philippine jaw harp, a description of Chinese methods of silver string-making, and an eyewitness account of a performance on the bandurrilla (bandurria). This paper will address several issues raised by the composition of such an erudite work of European music theory in what could be considered a relatively exotic locality. It will identify sources for the text, discuss the use of European theory for intercultural music pedagogy in the colonial milieu, and expose new evidence concerning the dissemination of European music in early modern Asia. It will also consider the musicological implications of this work’s emergence, particularly in terms of re-evaluating current understanding of process and effect in the worldwide diffusion of European music.

2.00pm – 3.30pm

French 18th Century Opera

Anita Hardeman

Title : (Re)presenting Vénus: The goddess onstage at the Paris Opéra

The goddess Vénus was by far the most popular deity on the stage at the Paris Opéra in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Appearing in a grand total of 21 works between 1672 and 1723, far outstripping her nearest rivals Cupid (17), Jupiter (16), and Apollo (16), Vénus acquires further distinction as a central character in five different works of this period. My paper examines her textual and musical presentation in these works.

Venus is known as an alchemical goddess, and her operatic treatment during this time bears witness to this tradition. In two of the works under consideration, Jean-Baptiste Lully’s Psyché (1678), and Bertin de la Doué’s Diomède (1710), the goddess assumes the role of villainess, while in two other works, Pascal Collasse’s La Naissance de Vénus (1696) and Henri Desmaret’s Vénus et Adonis (1697) she is the protagonist of the drama. However, despite these apparently disparate dramatic treatments, there are in fact many similarities between these four presentations of the goddess, both in the livret and in the music. These similarities are what permits the fusion of these two personae in the fifth work under discussion, André Campra’s Hésione (1700), in which the goddess behaves like an antagonist, but is rewarded as though she were the protagonist. Indeed, it is Campra’s musical treatment of Vénus which fully develops her ambivalent character. In the conclusion to my paper I demonstrate how Campra showcases both the inhuman and all-to-human aspects of the goddess’s character through a series of three exceptional monologues.

Françoise Escande

Title : André Destouches’ Callirhoé, an example of French opera at the turn of two reigns: interaction between the great official institutions in eighteenth-century France

André – Cardinal Destouches (1672-1749) remains too little examined despite the central role he playined in the French court music throughout his career. His tragédie lyrique Callirhoé constitues, because of its two versions (1712 and 1743), a key in the understanding of the composer’s role in the music and the institutions of his time.

First famous as a favorite musician of the old Louis XIV, Destouches became an unavoidable court-musician in Louis XV’s time (as one of the two “Surintendants” encharged of Marie Leszczynska’s “concerts de la Reine”). At the same time, Destouches was also in Paris, serving for more than fifteen years as the “inspecteur general” of the Académie Royale de Musique.

Interactions between Callirhoé’s musical sources reflect an interaction between these two central musical institutions: first performed at the Opera in 1712, revived in 1732 and 1743, Callirhoé was also performed at Louis XV’s court from 1727 until after the composer’s death. The annotated sources from the “Musique du roi” and from the Académie demonstrate the same “changements” that lead from the Callirhoé of 1712 – a traditionnal tragédie with a prologue and five acts – to the Callirhoé of 1743 – whose exceptional dramatic concentration joins with Destouches’ talent as a melodist. His success at the Opera in 1743 must surely pay tribute to the work’s performances at the court.

Kristina Baron-Woods

Title : The Awakening of Galatea: the Role of the Woman Artist-Educator in Rameau’s Pigmalion

The myth of the sculptor Pygmalion and his creation of an animated statue has undergone many metamorphoses throughout its history, from the time of its earliest literary incarnations to the mid-eighteenth century when composer Jean-Philippe Rameau and librettist Ballot de Sauvot created their acte de ballet, Pigmalion (1748). In the story’s pre-Enlightenment history, the male protagonist has represented a melancholy outcast, a neo-Platonic lover, and a courtier — fulfilling such roles as needed for the moralistic purposes of the contemporary society that assumed his story. In such stories, Galatea is hardly given human characteristics even after she has been brought to life. She is merely the object of the sin: the idol, the whore, or the un-dead.

In the mid-eighteenth century, however, such dark elements disappear. In Rameau’s Pigmalion, the joyous aspects of the story are glorified in music, dance, and comedy. Pigmalion’s prayer to Venus is no longer seen as idol-worship, but as a sincere desire for the noble concepts of perfection, love and beauty. Galatée strives to be a perfect woman of the Enlightenment — graceful, accomplished, and educated. Rameau’s version appears to speak to an enlightened view of women’s potential as artist-creators, leaving the completion of Galatée not to a male artist, but to a group of female educators. Through Rameau’s music, particularly the ballet sequence that crowns this opera-ballet, we see the myth functioning as an approbation for the arts, and for artistic endeavour for both men and women.

Music in Portugal

Filipe Santos Mesquita de Oliveira

Title : Francisco António d’Almeida and the serenata genre in early and mid-18th century Portugal

.Filipe Santos Mesquita de Oliveira (University of Évora)

The manuscript Lisbon, Biblioteca Nacional CIC 12 contains thirteen hitherto unknown arias by Francisco António d’Almeida (1702-1755?), one of the chief Portuguese composers of the first half of the 18th century. Three of them have been identified as being part of the serenata Gl´incanti d´Alcina (1730) and the other eight are from the serenata Il vaticinio di Pallade e di Mercurio (1731). A study of both the libretti, which were the sources for the identification of these arias, and the music present in manuscript CIC 12 is of fundamental importance to understand the serenata genre during the reign of King João V of Portugal, since it was the principal musical genre then performed on courtly occasions.

This paper aims therefore to expand our knowledge of the formal and the stylistic traits of F. A. d’Almeida’s serenatas and also to give an overview of the performing processes and the courtly and aristocratic impact associated with this genre. Its study will provide us with a richer view of the Portuguese musical scene in the first half of the 18th century, helping us simultaneously to understand the differences between the serenata and major dramatic genres such as opera and the cantata.

David Cranmer

Title : 18th-century Portuguese opera and comedy

1733 saw the first performances in Lisbon of both Italian and Portuguese opera. The Portuguese operas from the 1730s, with texts by the Brazilian dramatist António José da Silva and music by António Teixeira, would remain popular, though increasingly modified, throughout the 18th century. To these would be added other musico-theatrical phenomena, such as Portuguese translations/adaptations of Metastasio texts, often, as was common particularly in Spain, with additional comic characters, and often, even without these, designated “comédia”. There were also other comedies, frequently Portuguese translations/adaptations of French, Spanish or Italian plays, but also some apparently original. To judge from the surviving printed libretti, these would have been entirely spoken comedies. However, music (mostly fragmentary) surviving at the Ducal Palace in Vila Viçosa, all anonymous, can be shown to belong to certain of these comedies, suggesting that the inclusion of substantial amounts of music was habitual. From the rare cases where it has been possible to identify the music of these comedies, of the Metastasio adaptations and of alterations made to the Silva/Teixeira operas, we may come to a number of conclusions: numbers from Italian operas were systematically lifted and reused in other dramatic works; that the music for Metastasio adaptations and for other comedies was thus essentially pastiched; we may even propose the global conclusion that the general public grew to know Italian arias above all in comedies in Portuguese translation, rather than in the context of Italian operas.

Rui Cabral Lopes

Title : Hidden composers in the villancico sources of the Portuguese Royal Chapel (1640-1716)

One of the main sources of Portuguese musical life in the seventeenth and the early-eighteenth centuries is the collection of villancico libretti that were sang in the religious services of the Portuguese Royal Chapel from 1640 — year of acclamation of King João IV as the legitimate successor to the Portuguese crown after six decades of dual monarchy represented by the Spanish dynasty of the Habsburg. It was King João IV who established the costume of singing villancicos in the Royal Chapel, initially in the Christmas feast and, after some years, also in the Epiphany and in the feast of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, following a tradition that was already in practise in the private Chapel of the Royal family, located in the Alentejo municipality of Vila Viçosa. During seventy-nine years the villancicos were sang during the Matin offices of the aforementioned feasts and sometimes in the Christmas mass, exposing an almost uninterrupted tradition that has crossed several generations of Portuguese monarchy, until it was suddenly interrupted in 1716.

Although the text sources reveal no references of any kind regarding the authors of the music, it was possible to obtain some revealing conclusions on this topic through comparison with other important villancico sources of the period, as, for example, the Index of the Music Library of King João IV, containing more than two thousand examples.

In this paper I will present the results of an investigation that contributes to a better understanding of the Portuguese Baroque villancico in the wider context of Iberian music of the period.

Austria and Central Europe

Tassilo Erhardt

Title : The sources of Antonio Bertali’s sacred vocal music

In recent years the works of the Viennese Hofkapellmeister Antonio Bertali (1605–1669) have, after centuries of oblivion, entered the domains of music publishers, concert platforms, and the recording industry. This, however is mainly true for Bertali’s instrumental œvre, whilst his vocal music has so far received but little attention from musicians and scholars alike.
This paper investigates the extant sources of Bertali’s sacred vocal works. Matching these to 17th century inventories such as that of the Imperial music library (Distinta Specificatione), provides an accurate overview of lost and surviving works. Special emphasis is laid on Bertali’s masses and introits for which multiple complete sets of parts are held in the collections at Kroměříž, Vienna (National Library), Český Krumlov, and Kremsmünster Abbey. From comparative research into this performance material information can be gleaned on the performance conditions in the respective venues.

Robert G. Rawson

Title : Patterns of Provincial Piety in Bohemia: The Domestication of Liturgy and its Effect on Music

This paper examines the extension of non-conformist tendencies of adapting liturgical texts and practices into the Catholic age of the Czech lands after the Thirty Years War. After the defeat of the Protestant Union at White Mountain in 1620 (and especially after the devastating Landesordnung that demanded the conversion or expulsion of all non-Catholics) the creation of Catholic piety in the Czech lands often required an artificial construct of continuity with the pre-Habsburg era. One way this was attempted was the adaptation of non-conformist devotions, including use of the vernacular liturgy.

It is largely aa a result of the Czech practice of domesticating religious life that liturgical texts are not only translated into the vernacular language, but transformed to reflect and impact local lives and concerns. Moreover, the musical settings of these texts can also reveal some of the same tendencies of provincial piety. This latter category can be heard in quotations of popular hymns (or the stylistic imitation of such hymns) and also the performance practices of rural music-making (congregational singing and participation, and alternatum praxis). This paper will use a few liturgical settings by Šimon Brixi (1693-1735) and Jan Dismas Zelenka (1679-1745) as case studies to argue that vernacular adaptations of liturgy were not concerned only with language, but also that the character of devotion itself was transformed, rather than just translated, into Czech.

Janet K. Page

Title : “A lovely and perfect music”: Maria Anna von Raschenau and Music at the Viennese Convent of St. Jacob

Maria Anna von Raschenau (1650–1714) has been known only as the composer of several oratorios, all thought to be lost. Little was known of her life except dates of birth and death, and that she was Chormeisterin at the convent of St. Jacob in Vienna in 1710—since there seemed to be no surviving music, there was no need to know anything more.

But not all her music was lost. Three anonymous scores in the Austrian National Library set libretti that attribute the music to her, and other anonymous scores associated with the convent are likely also her work. The music reveals a composer of skill and imagination, making full use of the resources of her convent, which had a highly developed musical tradition. References to her in court documents reveal a prodigy, both in music and in other intellectual accomplishments; she was—most unusually for a woman—granted a court stipend to continue her education. Around 1672 she entered the convent of St. Jacob, where her musical career blossomed, as the practice of presenting large-scale musical works on patron saints’ days for members of the Imperial family became established in Viennese convents. The high point of this activity was 1690–1710, a time during which state visits to convents to hear music performed by virtuous nuns and young girls meshed perfectly with the Imperial family’s concept of itself. Raschenau thus contributed through her music to the political order of the time, as well as enriching the life of her convent.

4.00pm – 6.00pm

Music in German Courts and Cities

Samantha Owens

Title : ‘The newly introduced and generally more favoured French method’: the Transmission of French Musical Style at the Württemberg Court, 1665–1715

Reacting against Norbert Elias’s seminal theories on court society, a number of recent scholars, above all Jeroen Duindam, have questioned the extent to which Louis XIV and his glittering court at Versailles influenced the German nobility. Yet in the case of music at the Württemberg court in Stuttgart, the French style—openly composed and performed ‘in imitation of the famous Baptiste’—clearly held sway during the 1670s–1680s and continued to be of importance well into the early eighteenth century. Drawing upon printed ballet libretti and manuscript documents from the Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, including employment contracts, financial records, and detailed sets of official instructions regulating music-making at the court, this paper will examine the practicalities of the process through which this ‘favoured French method’ was acquired.

As these sources testify in often fascinating detail, a central role was played by the sizeable numbers of French violinist-dancing masters resident in the German-speaking lands, allowing us to identify the responsibilities allotted to Kapellmeister and dancing master respectively. The intimate working relationship required between these two positions, particularly in the composition and production of opera and ballet, appears to have changed substantially in the decades around 1700—perhaps due in part to Lully’s all pervasive influence. The situation in Stuttgart will be set in context through a comparison with French-style music-making at Protestant Hofkapellen elsewhere in the Holy Roman Empire around this time.

Barbara Reul

Title : From City to Court: the Birth of the Anhalt-Zerbst Hofkapellein 1699

This paper examines a recently discovered primary source at the Landeshauptarchiv Sachsen-Anhalt in Dessau, Germany. In 1699 Prince Carl Wilhelm of Anhalt-Zerbst promoted ‘Stadt Musico’ Johann Christoph Grahmann to court musician and commissioned him to put together a small musical ensemble for regular musical performances at the court Specifically, Grahmann was to hire five additional individuals, including one singer as well as string and woodwind players who were to provide musical entertainment at the ‘Taffel’, during ‘Assembléen’ (evening entertainments at the court) and when aristocrats were visiting.

For the ensemble’s repertoire Grahmann was ‘to draw upon the newest types of all sorts of music in a timely manner.’ Given the German fascination with Lully in the late seventeenth century, this request could refer to music in the French style. The Prince also included a standard ‘exclusivity’ clause: all works composed or acquired for the ensemble were for the enjoyment of the court alone, and not be made public as long as Grahmann was employed by the court.

It is no coincidence that musical performances at the court of Anhalt-Zerbst were officially regulated in 1699. First and foremost, it added an effective aural component to the impressive list of ‘courtly display’ activities in which Prince Carl Wilhelm, an avid supporter of the fine arts, had been engaging for many years to emphasize his family’s social status and public rank, including building a new, impressive palace and huge town church.

Michael Robertson

Title : Ouverturen und Suiten: Johann Christian Schieferdecker’s XII. musicalische Concerte

In June 1707, Johann Christian Schieferdecker was appointed organist and Werkmeister of the Marienkirche in Lübeck. The previous holder of the post had been Dieterich Buxtehude. Six years later, Schieferdecker published a collection of suites under the title XII. musicalische Concerte, bestehend aus etlichen Ouverturen und Suiten; they are his only known instrumental compositions. The title is highly significant; by calling his pieces ‘Ouverturen und Suiten’, Schieferdecker appears to be making deliberate reference to the collections of ‘Ouvertures de Theatre accompagnées de plusiers Airs’ published by the German disciples of Lully in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The music itself bears this out; the influence of court composers such as Cousser, Fischer and Erlebach is unmistakeable. But Schieferdecker was not a court composer; despite spending time at the Hamburg opera, he was essentially a town musician. He had studied at the Thomasschule in Leipzig and the post in Lübeck was very much in this tradition.

In this paper, I will consider the XII. musicalische Concerte in the light of court and town traditions of suite composition. I will argue that the collection represents a significant stage in the bringing together of these traditions, and that it demonstrates the increasing influence of the ‘französischer Art und Manier’ on town composers in the early part of the eighteenth century. In addition, I will argue that the use of concertante writing in parts of the collection, extending to entire movements, provides a very early example of the Concertouverture.

Arne Spohr

Title : English Masque Dances in Germany – The Case of William Brade’s Newe außerlesene liebliche Branden, Intraden, Mascharaden (Hamburg, Lübeck 1617)

During his employment as Capellmeister at the court of Christian Wilhelm of Bradenburg at Halle, the English violist and composer William Brade (c.1560-1630) published a substantial collection of English masque dances in his own five-part arrangements, his Newe Außerlesene Liebliche Branden, Intraden, Mascharaden (Hamburg and Lübeck, 1617). Brade’s collection is not only among the most important sources of English masque music, it also marks the starting point for the German reception of the genre. From the 1620s to the early 1640s, a large number of pieces modelled on Brade’s dances appeared in collections of consort music by Johann Schop, Nicolaus Bleyer and Andreas Hammerschmidt. English masque dances were most likely first performed in Germany at the wedding of the English princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I, and the Elector Palatine, Frederick V, in 1613. It seems plausible to link this genre’s continental popularity to this dynastic event that gave much hope to German Protestants who saw England as a powerful ally in their struggle with the Catholic enemy.


Jeffrey Kurtzman

Title : Monteverdi’s Missing Sacred Music: Evidence and Conjectures

Many Monteverdi scholars, understandably, have tried to associate his published sacred works with specific events known from the composer’s biography. The tacit underlying assumption of such attempts has been that Monteverdi’s published sacred music constitute virtually everything he wrote in this domain. In contrast to his operatic activites, when it comes to sacred music there are only a few documents that are specific music that was never published and no longer survives.

However, from at least the time he was named maestro di cappella by Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga as early as 1601 with duties “e della camera e della chiesa,” as Monteverdi himself put it, to the moment he died, Monteverdi’s employment made him responsible for sacred music. Monteverdi’s letters and other documents allude to a few specific sacred compositions, to duties for which he was regularly responsible for composing new music, and to services that featured his music, as well as general information about annual feasts for which it is highly likely he was responsible given his employment. Starting from the more specific notices, this paper will proceed to the more general consideration for what sorts of events we know or can assume Monteverdi would have composed the music, and on to conjectures about the quantity of sacred music lost. The purpose of this paper is to give a much broader prospective on Monteverdi’s sacred music production than has been traditional, relying as it has almost exclusively on his surviving sacred repertoire.

Naomi Matsumoto

Title : Assicurato “Cognito”: the Authorship of the Libretto of Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria

The libretto of Monteverdi’s opera Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria is almost unanimously attributed to Giacomo Badoaro. But the anonymous author of another opera, Ulisse errante (1644), also claims to have written the Il ritorno libretto, and he signs himself as “Assicurato Accademico Incognito” (the secured one of the Incogniti Academy). This is taken to mean that Badoaro must have been known as Assicurato amongst the Academy members.
However, this paper will show that Badoaro never appeared on the official lists of the Academy, and that Assicurato was Francesco Pona, as evidenced in Pona’s poetry. Following this, the paper will clarify the authorships of not only Il ritorno and Ulisse errante, but also Le nozze d’Enea con Lavinia (1640) – another opera allegedly written by Badoaro. In so doing, it will become clear that the practice of ‘co-authorship’ was more prevalent than hitherto discussed; Badoaro was in fact not ‘the author’ but ‘the plot-deviser’ of Il ritorno.

Issues concerned with the several surviving version of the libretto of the Il ritorno will then be discussed – the one Monteverdi chose to set to music and those others circulated as literature. The significant thematic parallel between the “Prologo” sanctioned by Monteverdi and Pona’s poem collection Gli amori discordi suggests that Pona had a strong hand in the ‘final’ version as we have it. Moreover, Monteverdi’s role in finalizing the libretto itself provides an interesting commentary on the breakdown of the socio-cultural ‘hierarchy’ amongst those involved in the opera industry.

Emily Wilbourne

Title : ‘Mosse l’Arianna per essere donna’: Claudio Monteverdi, Virginia Andreini and the traces of Arianna

“Arianna moved us,” wrote Monteverdi, “because she was a woman, and Orfeo did so, because he was a man” (9 December, 1616). This comment has been frequently invoked in the musicological literature as evidence for Monteverdi’s sensitivity to text and topic, of his awareness of the embodied, and specifically gendered, humanity of his characters. I want to think about his comment from a different perspective: Arianna was a woman, a particular woman, whose career became caught up and shaped by the figure of Arianna in significant ways. That woman was Virginia Ramponi Andreini, a commedia dell’arte actress who stepped in at the last moment to play the role, after Caterina Martinelli died suddenly and unexpectedly from smallpox.
This paper reads what we know of Monteverdi’s L’Arianna against what we can know about the fleshy presence of Virginia Andreini, substituting a female performer for the male composer as the subject of historical inquiry. The resultant text complicates the conception of the musical work, L’Arianna. By placing the surviving musical fragment, Arianna’s lament, within a context that exceeds the original opera, this paper takes account of stock figures in Virginia Andreini’s commedia dell’arte repertoire, the context of Gonzaga patronage, several paintings of Virginia by Domenico Fetti, and the seventeenth-century sources of the lament, including several sacred contrafacta which circulated in manuscript. Consequently, this paper recognises the power and importance of performance to musical reception, it greatly simplifies the relationships between the extant sources and it recontextualises early court opera within an already professionalised context of theatrical performance.

Genre, Theory and Meaning in French Music

Beate Kutschke

Title : Ethics and Gender in French Music around 1700

It is well known that the change of ethics – from theologically based morals and feudal ethics of deception to modern socially-oriented secular ethics – plays an important role for the European enlightenment. In France, these socio-cultural changes articulate themselves particularly clearly with French writers such as the moralists La Rochefoucauld and La Bruyère and the enlightenment philosophers Diderot and Rousseau (in the late 17th and middle of the 18th century respectively). In spite of the significance of the change of ethics for the history of western society and culture, its impact on the music of this time period has been neglected. This is all the more regrettable since music has been thought to be closely related to ethics since antiquity (Plato). Moreover, vocal music almost automatically refer to moral-ethical attitudes and behavior which manifest in narratives. It is consensus today that the French cantata emerged and, following, competed with the predominance of the tragédie en musique just during the time period when the power of Louis XIV declined. However, what has been neglected thus far is that the cantata not only politically, but also ethically-morally can be considered as the adversary of the tragédie en musique. This I will demonstrate by comparing cantatas of Bernier and Clérambault with the tragédie en musique of Charpentier which all revolve around the mythical narrative of Medea. In my paper, I will investigate the presentation of the mythical plot revolving around Medea by focusing on gender-related aspects of ethics which manifest in the pieces as the whole – libretto and music.

The successful premiere of Charpentier’s tragédie en musique Médée (1693) dated back less than 20 years, when in the 1710s, Bernier and Clérambault created their versions of “Medée” in the framework of the genre ‘cantata’ that was fairly new in France at this time. It is consensus today that the emergence of the French cantata at the beginning of the 18th century and its competition with the predominance of the tragédie en musique is related with the decline of the power of Louis XIV. What has been neglected thus far is that the cantata emerged not only at a political, but also ethical-moral turning point in European history, a turning point that can be described as change from theologically based morals and feudal ethics of deception to modern socially-oriented, secular ethics; it manifested itself most clearly in the writings of authors such as the moralists La Rochefoucauld and La Bruyère and the enlightenment philosophers Diderot and Rousseau (in the late 17th and middle of the 18th century respectively). Not surprisingly, the moral-ethical change also affects the musical settings of the plot of Medea, especially as regards the design of the main character who epitomizes the stereotype of the ‘rebellious woman’. How is the antique sujet, the revenge murder of Medea, presented in the tragédie en musique of Charpentier and the cantatas of Bernier and Clérambault? To what degree do the pieces recast the plot in order to adjust it to the contemporaneous ethical-moral orbit? In which way the presentation of the ‘rebellious woman’ Medea does influence this process of adjustment? And last but not least: Which role does the genre and the musical framework connected with the different genres – tragédie en musique vs. cantata – play in relation to the moral-ethical content of the pieces?

Don Fader

Title : Rethinking the Goûts-réunis:A Cautionary Tale of the Cantate françoise

Although the history of a goûts-réunis has largely been constructed around François Couperin’s famous encounter with Corelli, the réunion des goûts was in fact a much more complex phenomenon. This study builds on previous work demonstrating that the putative “inventors” of the cantate—Jean-Baptiste Morin, Nicolas Bernier, and Jean-Baptiste Rousseau— shared common connections through competing courtly circles. A critical re-examination of sources relating to the cantate in light of this broader context demonstrates that, instead of invention by a single composer encouraged by a single patron, the process involved competitive exchange between poets, composers, and their patrons.

The competition between Bernier and Morin had already begun in their publications of chamber motets, which make strikingly similar use of the Italian recitatives, da capo arias, motto introductions, and “device” technique that had recently become popular in France through Giovanni Bononcini’s cantatas. Further evidence from literary and musical sources indicates that this style served as a model for the two composers’ cantates, and that both became actively involved in Rousseau’s development of cantate texts. Not only did they both set texts that can be identified as Rousseau’s early experiments, but Rousseau’s experimentation itself may have been prompted by the problems encountered in a competition between Morin and two Italian composers to set Rousseau’s ode, Philomèle, as cantates. This and evidence of Morin’s independent attempts at cantate composition demonstrate that the cantate was the product of a broader competitive experimentation undertaken by courtly circles of interest in a goûts-réunis.

Catherine Gordon Seifert

Title : Battling the Rhetoric of Distraction: Bénigne de Bacilly’s Spiritual Airs for Impressionable Youths and Weak-Minded Women

During the late seventeenth century in France, Church leaders embarked upon a crusade to replace secular airs with sacred counterparts, principles of rhetoric forming the basis of their attacks. At the heart of this condemnation was the air’s expression of pleasure, seen as infiltrating the minds of impressionable youths and weak-minded women through erotically-charged persuasive texts and music that would cause turmoil within the body and distract minds away from God’s truth.

The remedy? Bénigne de Bacilly’s two volumes of spiritual airs (1672, 1677; five re-editions, 1683-1703) set to sacred poems by Abbé Jacques Testu. Bacilly composed his airs spirituels to replace profane songs and to capture the spirit of an intensified religious zeal through a new persuasive rhetorical-musical language. By reference to theological and rhetorical treatises, prefaces to Testu’s verses and Bacilly’s airs, and through an analysis based on rhetorical principles, I show how Bacilly manipulated musical conventions associated with profane airs in unconventional ways not only to create a sense of familiarity that make melody and text more memorable but also to calm the mind and direct it towards God. This approach served a pedagogical function: to enable young women, many musically illiterate, to learn airs easily, the use of profane musical conventions more readily “imprinting” the meaning of the sacred texts upon the memory.

By representing the opposition between heavenly virtue and earthly vice through musical conventions associated with passionate expression in profane airs, Bacilly’s intent was to create a music that was so persuasive, it would alter one’s mental state and imbue vulnerable minds with the desire to resist worldly pleasures and seek salvation to earn a place in heaven.

Théodora Psychoyou

Title : About 17th-century reportationes: on the Traité de la théorie de la musiqueby Joseph Sauveur (1697)

In 1697, the mathematician and geometer Joseph Sauveur (1653-1716) professed a course at the Collège Royal (Royal College of Paris). His Traité de la théorie de la musique (Treatise of the theory of music), which emerged from these lectures, already mentions a certain number of points developed later in his Principes d’acoustique et de musique (Principles of acoustics and music), a ‘mémoire’ presented and published in 1700 at the royal Academy of sciences, an institution into which Sauveur introduced this new discipline and and in which he occupied the very first chair of Acoustics. These issues are related to the nature and properties of sound: of its generation, propagation and perception. They also concern the division of the octave, temperament, and the main organologic issues. This treatise is known through a copy preserved at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, regarded as a copy of the course professed in 1697.

A few years ago I had the pleasure of finding a second copy of the same course; the dimensions and the organisation of this second copy are quite different of those of the first manuscript. The comparison of these two documents is very interesting and can inform us about the practice of notetaking for the constitutition of a theoretical corpus in the seventeenth century, in the manner of medieval reportationes.

Saturday 5th July

9.00am – 11.00am


Szymon Paczkowski

Title : Bach’s Peasant Cantataand the Polish style

The musical quotations in Johan Sebastian Bach’s Peasant Cantata (BWV 212) have been approached by critics in many different ways. Most were identified in the 19th century; the tunes used by Bach have their origin mostly in popular 18th-century song and dance repertoire from the Leipzig area. Also, passages using Polish dance rhythms have been pointed out by scholars such as Ph. Spitta, A. Simon or W. Neumann, and were usually attributed correctly to the local fashion for Polish dances in the period of the political union between Poland and Saxony. However, to date no quotations or direct references have been found in the Peasant Cantata linking it to so-called “Polish style” repertoire. Similarly, the critics have failed to recognize the witty connections between the cantata’s Polish-style musical passages and the relevant passages in the libretto.
In this paper, I present my most recent findings relating to those issues.

Tim Crawford

Title : J. S. Bach’s ‘Cantate Burlesque’: Unusual features of the ‘Peasant’ Cantata, BWV 212

J. S. Bach’s late secular cantata, ‘Mer han en neue Oberkeet’, BWV 212, is characterised as ‘Burlesque’ both in the title of the autograph manuscript and at the head of Picander’s libretto. Commissioned in 1742 by Karl Heinrich von Dieskau, a Saxon government official, it is unusual – even bizarre – in several respects, both in terms of Bach’s compositional style and of our view of it as a product of its age. Was this a ‘mediocre’ work from the pen of the ageing composer, or an attempt to ‘write down’ to an un-musical audience in a ‘popular’ style? Recent research reveals that many of the tunes Bach uses can be found in other contemporary sources. Often these are for plucked-string instruments; the fact that von Dieskau was known as ‘a connoisseur of music, especially for the lute,’ suggests that he had something to do with the choice of the melodies. Bach’s approach to the task of composition was highly untypical, renouncing conventional da Capo arias in all but a single case. The presence of the ‘Polish style’ has been interpreted as a conventional homage to the Polish Crown (in the person of the Saxon Elector); is it, rather, a ‘subversive’ aspect which would have been recognised by Dieskau’s guests as a ‘satirical’ element of the ‘burlesque’? This paper engages with these and other questions, in an attempt to situate this highly enjoyable work as a fascinating experiment in which the composer deliberately imposed strong constraints upon his musical imagination in the interest of straightforward communication with his audience.

David Ledbetter

Title : When notation is too exact to be exact: J.S. Bach’s suggestive anomalies

This study grows from a close examination of the principal sources for The Well-tempered Clavier and the unaccompanied instrumental works BWV 995–1013 in order to see what details of notation can tell us about performance. By the standards of his time Bach was very careful in the notation of rhythm in his mature works, but in some crucial places the values do not add up. These are ornamental figurations, and rather than assuming that he has made a mistake it may be fruitful to think that he has written the rhythm as he felt it. The anomalous notation may therefore give a better impression of what he intended than the tidied-up versions presented by virtually all modern editions. Included are dotted rhythms, tirata figures, and the meaning of long slurs. Sometimes two otherwise identical figures may be notated differently since one is ornamental and the other motivic. There also questions of rhythmic combinations, the necessity of identifying elements in a stylistic blend in order to interpret the rhythms; and the conventional writing of notes in short durations that are in fact intended to be held much longer. Within all this Bach himself is frequently inconsistent, though the inconsistencies can again be suggestive of the intended interpretation.

Michael Quinn

Title : Between tonal theory and historical sentiment: Schenker’s reception of J.S. Bach’s chorale harmonisations

In the first volume of his treatise on counterpoint, published in 1906, Heinrich Schenker presented his own reworking of a chorale harmonisation by J.S. Bach. Schenker reharmonised a modal chorale setting so that it concluded in the expected ‘tonic’ key – as his own theories of tonality demanded. This example, together with Schenker’s other analytical readings of Bach chorale harmonisations, demonstrate his urge to situate this composer within a historical continuum of Germanic masters, whose compositions he believed exemplified the immutable laws of tonal music. Chorale harmonisations – where the composer sets a pre-existing melody – may seem to represent an unusual choice on the theorist’s part, yet, in these, as in Bach’s freely composed works, Schenker discerned the fundamental structure that characterised his analyses. This paper will seek to elucidate the manner in which Schenker, in the early 20th century, interpreted Bach’s chorale harmonisations, which had been the focus of theoretical enquiry since the late 18th century. It will also examine the broader significance of the chorale in this period, and suggest how Schenker’s analyses of these chorales reflect his concerns with the preservation of a threatened Germanic musical tradition, and why they constitute an important element of Bach reception within the domain of music theory.

In the first volume of his treatise on counterpoint, published in 1906, Heinrich Schenker presented his own reworking of a chorale harmonisation by J.S. Bach. Schenker reharmonised a modal chorale setting so that it concluded in the expected ‘tonic’ key – as his own theories of tonality demanded. This example, together with Schenker’s other analytical readings of Bach chorale harmonisations, demonstrate his urge to situate this composer within a historical continuum of Germanic masters, whose compositions he believed exemplified the immutable laws of tonal music. Chorale harmonisations – where the composer sets a pre-existing melody – may seem to represent an unusual choice on the theorist’s part, yet, in these, as in Bach’s freely composed works, Schenker discerned the fundamental structure that characterised his analyses. This paper will seek to elucidate the manner in which Schenker, in the early 20th century, interpreted Bach’s chorale harmonisations, which had been the focus of theoretical enquiry since the late 18th century. It will also examine the broader significance of the chorale in this period, and suggest how Schenker’s analyses of these chorales reflect his concerns with the preservation of a threatened Germanic musical tradition, and why they constitute an important element of Bach reception within the domain of music theory.

Roman Cantata Sources

Christine Jeanneret

Title : The Hands of Music: The Transmission of Roman Cantata Manuscripts (1640-1680)

Roman cantatas were transmitted almost exclusively in manuscripts. Their volumes show remarkable similarities in fabrication (format, binding, and watermarks), as well as in the few recurring hands responsible for the copies. The material evidence clearly indicates Roman provenance, realized moreover in a restricted circle and destined for an elite. It is therefore quite remarkable that this music was so widely exported within Italy as well as abroad.

A detailed study of the manuscripts preserved in the Casanatense Library in Rome allows identification of the main music copyists, as well as a typology of their different roles, ranging from the professional copyist with beautiful calligraphy to the simple musician realizing an anthology for personal use, or a collector inserting titles, attributions, or a table of contents at a later stage.

This paper will identify the recurrent and main scribes in the Casanatense sources, with a precise characterization of their music and text hands. Antonio Chiusi, at the service of Flavio Chigi from 1659 to 1666, appears in a majority of the repertoire. Along with these volumes, I will also mention some fifty other manuscripts preserved in Paris, London and Oxford, among others, where his hand or other important copyists appear. The manuscripts preserved outside of Italy clearly testify to of the wide circulation of the Roman cantata, especially the Parisian volumes that were directly commissioned for the French court. This philological study should eventually allow us to better understand the function, the destination, and the transmission of this repertoire.

Margaret Murata

Title : Composers’ Holographs among the Barberini Music Manuscripts

The Barberini family in Rome often commissioned music from composers as a function of their various ecclesiastical offices and institutional ‘protectorates’ (e.g., the Collegio Romano). Most of this music is lost. The manuscripts of music in the present Barberini collection in the Vatican Library represent instead music for children’s lessons and domestic performance (including their operas), scores that belonged to household musicians, or, toward the end of the 17th century, volumes collected for the prince’s own library. The latter are primarily, but not entirely, in the hands of professional copyists. The earlier scores include volumes in the hands of both professional music copyists (several are the same copyists discussed by C. Jeanneret, A. Morelli, and A. Ruffatti)—and composers themselves.

This presentation will illustrate the holographs in the 116 Barberini manuscripts of music (including ones already known, newly identified, and those that remain unknown), show how they differ from most professional hands, and propose explanations for their presence. Among the hands, one finds Antonio Maria Abbatini, Giovanni Girolamo Kapsperger, Marco Marazzoli, Orazio Mihi, Marc’Antonio Pasqualini, Paolo Petti (identified by Lowell Lindgren), and Pier Francesco Valentini.

Alessio Ruffatti

Title : French Sources of Roman Cantatas: The European Dissemination

Roman cantatas of the Seicento were widely appreciated outside of Italy in the second half of that century. This music was transmitted by Roman sources that will be described by M. Murata, A. Morelli and C. Jeanneret, but the same repertoire circulated within Europe in French copies as well as Italian ones. Numerous codicological observations help distinguish the two different kinds of sources.

Some watermarks were produced and used exclusively in Italy in the seventeenth century, and therefore are useful to determine paper provenance. In Roman sources, staves are traced with a rastrum, while in French volumes, one may find staves printed on paper (papier imprimé), sold by the Ballard family. In some we find printed pages—by the Foucault firm for instance — that precede handwritten pages containing the music. Sometimes it is possible to identify French provenance through the identification of copyists that have already been studied, like Charles Babell or the atelier Philidor. Another characteristic that is not found in Roman sources is a mix of French and Italian music, or the presence of instrumental doubles. Such elements help demonstrate the importance of French culture in the dissemination of Roman cantatas across Europe in the seventeenth century.

Italian and Iberian Instrumental Music

Naomi Joy Barker

Title : The toccatas of MS Chigi Q IV 25: A statistical approach to attribution

The three keyboard toccatas attributed to Frescobaldi contained in the so-called Chigi manuscripts, like many other Frescobaldi attributions, lack hard evidence to prove his authorship. Frescobaldi’s reputation was such that to ascribe a work to him ensured a mark of authority. A by-product of this attitude is that we have very little secure evidence of works by other organist-composers working in Rome in the same period.

This paper presents the early findings of an analytical study to assess the statistical probability of the authorship of these toccatas. This involves creating a systematic profile of stylistic elements comprising a range of stylistic ‘markers’ using Frescobaldi’s published works in the same genre. This profile is completely individual, but may not be overtly apparent from a simple perusal of the score. It may be likened to the recognition of someone by their fingerprint, rather than their facial features. Using the same elements, profiles of Froberger’s earliest known toccatas, and for other known composers of the period are created. These are then used as a basis of comparison with the dubious attributions using simple statistical analysis, such frequency analysis or cluster analysis. In combination with traditional manuscript studies, new light may be shed on a difficult problem in Frescobaldi scholarship.

João Vaz

Title : The Performance of 17th Century Iberian Batallas: A Brief Analisys of the Batalha Famosain Oporto Municipal Library, Manuscript 43

The batalla (batalha in Portuguese) is widely considered as one of the most distinctive genres in 17th century Iberian organ music. Nevertheless, in spite of its popularity among organists, the performance of these works is a subject about which there is a serious lack of information.
As any type of descriptive music, batallas obviously demand a certain degree of freedom and fantasy from the player. However, some of the most convincing performances of such pieces are less the result of the thorough musicological research (so common nowadays in period-performance practice) than a consequence of the player’s musical intuition.
The Batalha famosa in Oporto Municipal Library, manuscript 43 (P-Pm MM 43) contains important performance remarks, some of which not included in the only available edition of that work (Klaus Speer, ed., Fr. Roque da Conceição: Livro de obras para órgão, Portugaliae Musica XI, Lisbon, 1967).
As a contribution to the understanding of Iberian batallas this paper proposes a discussion on the above mentioned remarks in the light of 17th century writing technique and keyboard performance praxis.

Vanda de Sá Martins da Silva

Title : Avondano’s Lisbon Minuets, the establishment of a cosmopolitan model

Pedro António Avondano (ca.1714-1782), an important figure among the Court musicians, is mostly studied for his vocal works, the dominant musical genre in the Portuguese Ancien Régime. However, he promoted balls and concerts in his own house, mainly for the foreign communities. Three collections of minuets written for these balls were published in London, at the expenses of the British community in Lisbon. This music and its context reflect the tensions and negotiations between the cosmopolitan model of an aristocrat minuet and the import of new cultural practices. The former model emerges and is a discourse characteristic of the dominant social class, a minuet impossible to be learnt by the common people, “that run’s in the blood”. The transformations of this model had on its top level the work of Avondano, who established a novelty that is recognized by his contemporary musicians. Furthermore, on a local level we recognize the further establishment of a repertoire of dance music associated with the guitar that includes minuets assimilating “vernacular” features of popular urban music of the time.
In this paper I will discuss the different cosmopolitan models of the minuet in the mid-eighteenth century, presenting the confrontation of different contexts, sources and repertoire. The analysis of Avondano’s minuets reveals new musical solutions and testifies a high level of performance in the context of dance music.

João Pedro d’Alvarenga

Title : Some Preliminaires on Editing Seixas’ Keyboard Sonatas

The figure and the oeuvre of Carlos Seixas (1704-42) were rediscovered in the 1930s mostly by Macario Santiago Kastner (1908-92), whose writings and editions ― particularly the monograph Carlos Seixas (Coimbra, 1947), the editions for Schott’s (Cravistas portugueses, Mainz, 1935 and 1950) and for the Gulbenkian Foundation (Carlos Seixas: 80 Sonatas para instrumentos de tecla, Portugaliæ Musica 10, Lisbon, 1965; Carlos Seixas: 25 Sonatas para instrumentos de tecla, Portugaliæ Musica 34, Lisbon, 1980), and the essay ‘Carlos Seixas: sus inquietudes entre lo barroco y lo prerromántico’ (Anuario Musical, 43, 1988, pp. 163-187) ― roused the attention of musicologists and interpreters for the Portuguese composer.
Nevertheless, a critical appraisal of the body of sources of Seixas’ keyboard sonatas was never tried, to the point of even impeding the establishment of its real number. Of course Kastner’s editions, and more recent ones like Gerhard Doderer’s Carlos Seixas: Ausgewählte Sonaten (Organa Hispanica 7 & 8, Heidelberg, 1982), suffered from this state of affairs, presenting texts based either on a supposed better source or on conflation, without really discuss basic editorial choices or even authorship attribution.
In this paper I will offer a brief assessment of Seixas’ sources, propose a comprehensive list of the sonatas, and examine some of the problems faced in establishing a text of works surviving in more than one manuscript. Issues of text ‘banalization’ by means of incorporation of performance practice gestures will also be discussed.

11.30am – 1.00pm

Bach Network 3

Alison Dunlop

Title : Gottlieb Muffat in Berlin: New Sources and Perspectives

Recent changes in the political climate in Europe has brought to our attention many sources which were previously unavailable to scholars, offering new opportunities for source studies and reception history concerning Muffat, much of whose work remains unpublished. The Berlin Sing-Akademie collection, returned from Kiev to Berlin in 2001, is a case in point. Since it has been available to scholars since 2003, it has been and continues to be a fruitful source for scholars specialized in C.P.E. Bach and Telemann, to name but two.

This paper examines the keyboard compositions of Gottlieb Muffat, now housed in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, focusing on the hitherto unknown compositions in the Berlin Sing-Akademie collection. A total of 25 items in the collection have been attributed to Gottlieb Muffat (1690-1770). These include 3 keyboard concerti, numerous suites or partitas and pastorellas. Among these is a partita in A major from 1717, a piece which I have recently identified as being the earliest known dated work by the composer. The recovery of this work, alongside others found in the same collection, would allow us to reassess the chronology, stylistic development of, and influences on Muffat’s work, which is expected to provide valuable information to reevaluate the relationship between these hitherto unknown works and the rest of his œuvre. I will also investigate the provenance of these sources and seek to provide an explanation for how they came to be part of the collection.

Burkhard Schwalbach

Title : 18th-Century Coffee-House Culture: A New Context for Bach’s Music?

The historical venue of J. S. Bach’s performances with his Leipzig Collegium Musicum has attracted only limited musicological attention so far, which is not surprising given the almost complete absence of any firm documentary evidence, relating to either the performed repertoire or musical proceedings at Zimmermann’s coffee house. However, given the cultural significance of Leipzig’s Caffé-Schencken as social hubs of early enlightenment culture, a broader approach to Bach’s Collegium performances may still allow a more comprehensive understanding of his 18th-century musical circles. Philipp Spitta, for example, suggested that Christian Friedrich Henrici (better known as ‘Picander’) was a member of Bach’s Collegium and Johann Christoph Gottsched, Leipzig’s ‘literary pope’ and occasional writing partner of Bach’s, is also known to have frequented Leipzig’s coffee houses.

This paper will consider to what extent Gottfried Zimmermann’s venue can provide more than a just a topical context for pieces, which explicitly refer to social customs of Leipzig’s middle class, such as the celebrated Coffee Cantata (BWV 211) or the aria ‘So oft ich meine Tobackspfeife’ (BWV 515). Arno Forchert recently suggested a compelling re-reading of Bach’s cantata Der Streit zwischen Phoebus und Pan (BWV 201), arguing that Picander’s libretto contains veiled references to both himself and his literary rival Gottsched. This would place the piece firmly within Leipzig’s coffee-loving and equally polemical debating culture. It seems likely therefore, that a more comprehensive understanding of Bach’s role within this social context will yield further, fresh insights into his music.


Fred Fehleisen

Title : If God Is For Us: Handel’s musical-rhetorical summation of Messiah

The song, “If God is for us,” may be the most misunderstood movement in Messiah. Mozart “cut” Handel’s air and replaced it with a recitative when he “modernized” the work in 1789. And for more than one hundred and fifty years after that time, Handel’s original setting was rarely performed. Despite its tenuous place in the performance history of oratorio, “If God is for us” actually turns out to be one of the most important movements in the work. At the 12th Biennial Conference in Warsaw I presented a paper on the Overture to Messiah in which I argued that the musical-rhetorical language of the oratorio centered on an array of thematic figures that appear in both Handel’s pre-compositional materials, and in complex contrapuntal contexts that give rise to the Overture’s musical-rhetorical structure. In doing so, I suggested that the Overture serves as the exordium to Handel’s musical-rhetorical argument for the work – and that it is for this reason that he refused to replace it. Continuing along these lines I will attempt to show that “If God is for us” serves as the musical-rhetorical summation of Handel’s argument, that its presence in performances of the work is essential, and that an understanding of its musical language is crucial to understanding Messiah as a whole.

Ivan Curkovic

Title : The Interdependence of Music and Drama in certain Handel Operas: Attempts at an Interdisciplinary Approach

Attitudes to Baroque opera have changed significantly over the past few decades as the result of an ever stronger presence of the early music movement and of increased interest on the part of contemporary audiences in both concert performances and staged productions. Scholarship nowadays views the operatic output of composers like G. F. Handel as less conventional and monolithic both musically and dramatically than used to be the case. Nonetheless the interaction of these two facets of expression in Baroque opera is rarely examined in depth. In the following study, the role of Handel’s musical setting in the dramaturgical processes inherent to the composer’s Italian operas is considered according to certain theoretical and semiotical frameworks, namely Etienne Souriau’s concept of dramatic situation, the actantial model of Anne Ubersfeld and aspects of Manfred Pfister’s analysis of drama. Comparisons are made with Handel’s dramatic output in the genres of masque and oratorio, as well as with the varying historical and national traditions of Baroque opera. It should be emphasised that the current study makes no claims to be comprehensive, especially given the vast nature of the phenomena under examination. The interdisciplinary approach adopted is merely one among many that could be or have already been undertaken.

Marjo Suominen

Title : Composer – performer relationship in Händel´s opera Giulio Cesare in Egittoas seen from the view of singers; some ontological aspects

Three questions motivate this study:

  1. How will the composer – performer relationship be placed within the basic three phased communication model (composer – musical work – performer and/or listener) in Giulio Cesare, as seen through the three peircean categories of signs?
  2. How does this communication between the composer and singer(s) turn into an interpretation?
  3. How should this be considered when the composer cannot attend to interpret, guide, advise and instruct the interpretation process of his work?

In this paper I will give a short insight into some ontological aspects by known ontology theorists and apply them to the study of performance practices in Händel´s Giulio Cesare. Using a three level theory of aisthesis – neuter – poiesis by semiologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990), a model for musical communication by Swedish musicologist Ingmar Bengtsson (1973/ 1977, a theory of reference symbol by art philosopher Nelson Goodman (1976) and a theory of action types by Gregory Currie (1989). I will relate these to the triadism of signs and signifying formulated by semiotician Charles Sanders Peirce (1903-06 and 1867).

The Italian Style in the Early 18th Century

Claudio Bacciagaluppi

Title : A Reappraisal of Pergolesi’s Masses

Francesco Degrada’s article from 1966 is the last attempt to date of an overview of the Masses of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, although just two Kyrie-Gloria settings are known.
Concerning the works’ origin, the D major Mass was presumably a student’s work, whereas the F major Mass was possibly a commission of the City of Naples, before being revived in Rome in May 1734 for Pergolesi’s patrons, the Carafas of Maddaloni.
The transmission and reception of the two works differ greatly. The different versions of the F major Mass are transmitted in autograph sources. Hitherto unidentified autograph traces in a Neapolitan set of parts now provide an authoritative source also for the D major Mass.
Direct compositional influence can be confidently traced only in the Neapolitan environment (Durante, Sciroli, De Majo). The wide dissemination of manuscripts for both Masses testifies however the popularity of these works throughout Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The vast field of misattributions will be also addressed. The aim is not to discover unknown works, but to turn away from the ‘statistical’ style critique of past Pergolesi research. Issues of compositional and performing practice will give new insight on the context of misattributed works, suggesting a rationale for the stylistic difference between Kyrie-Gloria pairs and Credo settings, and providing finally a foil for a general reappraisal of Pergolesi’s two contributions to the genre of the Neapolitan concerted mass.

Fabrizio Ammetto

Title : The Double Violin Concerto in Germany in Vivaldi’s Time

In Europe the most representative composer of the double violin concerto is without question Vivaldi, who composed nearly 30 works in that genre over almost the full length of his career. By the end of the second decade of the eighteenth century – when Vivaldi’s works were already circulating beyond the Alps – we can observe a clear change of compositional conception on the part of the “Red Priest” seen in the different function assigned to the two solo parts: originally resembling a concerto grosso with a ‘reduced’ concertino (lacking a separate bass part), the double concerto now becomes an ‘augmented’ form of solo concerto.

In Germany, Telemann is the composer who at the beginning of the eighteenth century devotes most attention to this particular genre, penning nine double violin concertos, almost all of them written between 1708 and 1714. However, some of these works were composed before the end of the first decade of the century – that is, before the manuscripts of Vivaldi’s concertos began to circulate outside Italy. Because of their apparent lack of connection with the Italian ‘model’, Telemann’s double violin concertos are particularly interesting: they are in three or four movements (but four is the most frequent choice) and also vary in the type of violinistic writing given to the two soloists.

The famous (and lone?) Bach double violin concerto, which originated in the 1720s or perhaps later, perhaps owes as much to Torelli (shown, for instance, in the compositional techniques of ‘self-imitation’ and ‘self-accompaniment’, a point recently made by Michael Talbot) as to Vivaldi (shown in the overall harmonic planning and in the use made of thematic incipits of tutti passages for the orchestral accompaniment to solo passages).

Ann Lingas

Title : Imagery and ideals of violin playing in Rome, c1700

Around 1700, the growing visibility of violin virtuosi in Roman musical life is discernable not only through vocal and instrumental music manuscripts and publications, but also in multiple visual and textual descriptions. More players are active in the city and their function in vocal performances is expanding, including in the production and performance of instrumental introductions on an unprecedented scale. Through an exploration of varied sources, this paper will examine the changing roles and ideals for violinists in their interrelated activities as performers, composers, and leaders of instrumental music.

A sonnet and madrigal by Giuseppe Valentini honouring two fellow violinists, and additional texts extolling Arcangelo Corelli’s role in leading large instrumental groups provide typical representations for consideration. These sources appropriate older instruments such as the lira as well as the mythical players Apollo and Orpheus, even as Corelli is depicted assuming a newer, managerial role in novel large-group performances of violin-dominated instrumental music. Two significant abstract violinist figures—one archaic and one decidedly modern—are therefore apparent and will be presented in greater detail with reference to additional contemporary sources. A parallel is drawn with two engravings and their accompanying captions from Filippo Bonanni’s 1722 Gabinetto armonico, and finally a hybrid figure combining the desirable qualities of each type of violinist is identified.

2.00pm – 4.00pm

Sources of Restoration in English Music

Peter Leech

Title : Another Lady Nevil’s Book – A hitherto unknown English source of late 17th century instrumental and vocal music

The Brailes library at St.Mary’s College Oscott, Sutton Coldfield is famous for one music manuscript in particular, the missing altus part (re-discovered by H Colin Slim) from a total of five early 16th century partbooks (c.1528) containing Latin motets and madrigals, the other four being in the Newberry Library, Chicago. However, an otherwise unknown manuscript Shelfmark b.469 owned by a female member of a prominent English recusant family, Ursula Nevil, has recently come to light. A quarto oblong volume, bound in richly-tooled vellum and dated 1664 (although copied over an extended period), it contains copies of consort and vocal music in several different hands by a variety of English court composers including Nicholas Staggins and Henry Purcell, as well as fragments of violin sonatas by Nicola Matteis and Arcangelo Corelli. As far as is known this sources has not been documented in modern times.

This paper will make a general survey of the manuscript, highlighting some of the more important aspects of its contents as well as setting it in the context of music within the late 17th century English recusant community and in the wider English scene. It is a valuable piece of further evidence which suggests that the seventeenth century English Catholic diaspora has yet to reveal all of its cultural secrets.

Andrew Woolley

Title : An Unknown William Croft Keyboard Autograph

A small but significant number of autograph keyboard manuscripts of the Restoration are known. To these we can now add a bi-folio containing seven harpsichord pieces copied anonymously by the London keyboard player William Croft (1678-1727) bound into MS Mus. 1141a, a modern composite, at Christ Church, Oxford. There are an unusually large number of pieces by Croft and they form a significant and attractive part of Restoration repertory, although they survive in a rather small number of textually related sources. The new manuscript gives four pieces unique to English keyboard sources that are a valuable and musically interesting addition to the repertory, whilst the other three have interesting unique texts.

The composite manuscripts MS Mus. 1141a-d, containing mostly parts and scores to consort music of late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth century date, were probably loose-leaf papers once belonging to Richard Goodson senior (c. 1655-1718), Heather Professor, and organist at Christ Church. He undoubtedly came into contact with Croft when Croft was preparing the performances of his doctoral exercise (the odes ‘With Noise of Cannon’ and ‘Laurus Cruentas’) at Christ Church in July 1713. However, the manuscript was probably copied about ten years earlier, suggesting the possibility that the two men were connected before 1713.

Compared to other English keyboard autographs of the period, the manuscript is unusual in a few respects. Most are books that were pre-bound, probably intended for the amateur market, and although it is possible, it seems unlikely that the manuscript was excised from a larger collection. In addition, the connection with Goodson suggests the manuscript circulated among professional musicians. A more typical feature, however, is the unique texts, which illustrate the apparent fluidity of English keyboard composers’ texts in the period.

Peter Holman

Title : The Sale Catalogue of Gottfried Finger’s Library: New Light on London Concert Life in the 1690s

In the winter of 1704-5 Henry Playford advertised ‘A Choice Collection of Vocal and Instrumental Musick in Italian, French, and English’ owned by Gottfried Finger and partly collected by him ‘in his Travels in Italy’. Finger had evidently sold the collection to Johann Gottfried Keller and John Banister junior prior to his abrupt departure from England in 1701 after coming last in the competition to set Congreve’s masque The Judgement of Paris. The discovery of a copy of the printed catalogue throws light on Finger’s collecting activities in Italy and on the reception of Italian music in England. It also includes a list of ‘Mr. Finger’s Great Pieces in York-Buildings’, providing us with valuable new information about his concert activities in London in the 1690s. The list includes many pieces richly scored with brass, woodwind and strings, evidently performed with sizeable forces: most of the sets of parts are said to have been ‘Prick’d 3 times over’. It adds a number of new pieces to the catalogue of Finger’s known compositions, and enables us to attribute to him an anonymous sonata for four recorders and continuo that was published in the twentieth century as by Paisible.

In the winter of 1704-5 Henry Playford advertised ‘A Choice Collection of Vocal and Instrumental Musick in Italian, French, and English’ owned by Gottfried Finger and partly collected by him ‘in his Travels in Italy’. Finger had evidently sold the collection to Johann Gottfried Keller and John Banister junior prior to his abrupt departure from England in 1701 after coming last in the competition to set Congreve’s masque The Judgement of Paris. The discovery of a copy of the printed catalogue throws light on Finger’s collecting activities in Italy and on the reception of Italian music in England. It also includes a list of ‘Mr. Finger’s Great Pieces in York-Buildings’, providing us with valuable new information about his concert activities in London in the 1690s. The list includes many pieces richly scored with brass, woodwind and strings, evidently performed with sizeable forces: most of the sets of parts are said to have been ‘Prick’d 3 times over’. It adds a number of new pieces to the catalogue of Finger’s known compositions, and enables us to attribute to him an anonymous sonata for four recorders and continuo that was published in the twentieth century as by Paisible.

Rhetoric and Music

Carrie Churnside

Title : A Poetic Approach to Bolognese Sacred Cantatas

Given the popularity of the chamber cantata in the Baroque, it is hardly surprising that the genre was appropriated as a vehicle for moral or spiritual instruction. In some cases the sacred cantata was promoted by religious institutions or orders and had a clear didactic purpose. In other instances they were written for performance at academy meetings or in the chambers of noblemen who desired some spiritual recreation. Over the period 1659 to 1717 twelve volumes of cantate morali e spirituali were issued from the printing presses of Bologna, the second city of the Papal States. Whilst, as with all cantata poetry, a significant amount is anonymous, those poets who are named include a number of local authors, suggesting that the works originated from a particular Bolognese context. The poets who provided the texts for both the moral and the spiritual cantatas used a variety of different techniques in order to variously cajole, command, inspire devotion or impress through clever wordplay. These include personal monologues, direct addresses to the listener and dialogues between named characters. This paper surveys the wide range of poetic texts found in these twelve printed Bolognese volumes, examining their subject matters and approaches, and exploring what we can deduce from them about the performance contexts of the sacred cantata in Bologna.

Roger Freitas

Title : Metaphors in Music: Two Musical Topoi in Mid-Seicento Rome

In this paper I contend that Luigi Rossi and his circle in Rome employed in their operas and cantatas at least two expressive techniques—not widely exploited by their colleagues—that parallel in music the paradoxical metaphors of contemporary literature. Their identification (through extensive analysis) sheds much-needed light on Rossi’s expressive vocabulary and further warns that the musical “language” of the mid-Seicento may in fact comprise a variety of local dialects.

Drawing on the work of J. W. Van Hook and Eugenio Donato, I show the importance of the paradoxical metaphor for literary theorists like Matteo Peregrini, Sforza Pallavicino, and especially Emanuele Tesauro. To condense and oversimplify, these writers believed that the metaphor opens a level of perception normally thwarted by the rational mind. Paradoxical metaphors—linking outwardly opposed ideas—first “sweetly wound the intellect” and then encourage new ways of thinking.

Such constructs seem to have inspired Rossi. In his warlike music, he regularly combines predictable melodies and rhythms with the by-then incongruous cantus-mollis tonality of B-flat, as if fusing the traditional “war-love” dichotomy. Recognizing this “mollis martial” also helps illuminate Rossi’s use of B-flat in other contexts. Then, Rossi habitually disrupts the metrical stability of his triple-meter episodes with hemiola, misplaced accents, long notes, and, most radically, isolated measures of quadruple. His cantata Lasciatemi qui solo—saturated with this “ambiguous triple”—reveals the effect as a translation of Monteverdian recitative into an updated lyrical medium, a “recitar canoro” meant to expand listeners’ perceptions of musical expressivity.

Renata Borowiecka

Title : Musical rhetoric in the Stabat Mater settingsof the late baroque Italian composers

The Stabat Mater poem,which describes the suffering of Blessed Virgin Mary under the cross on which Jesus – her son – is dying, has become a universal theme which inspired composers of various ages and origins and found its expression in numerous musical interpretations. From among c. 380 compositions which set the text of the sequence to music, a large proportion are 18th-century works (mostly – late Baroque) of Italian provenience. Attempting to interpret a musical composition with text of the first half of the 18th century, one has to take into account the theory of affects and musical rhetoric, which make the text dependent on music both on the emotive and symbolic level. The paper will examine the Stabat Mater compositions in the rhetoric context, referring to three main levels: inventio, dispositio and decoratio.

The common and individual tendencies will be articulated, evident by the appropriate choice of the key, tempo and rhetorical figures, as well as by some melodic and rhythmic motives or harmonic structure having function of the special illustrative-symbolic signs. The nodal points of the work will be presented (exordium, conclusion, and the closure of stanza 8 – the moment of the death of Christ) as well as the requests of man directed at the Mother (the second part of the sequence) assuming varying intonations of supplication.

When analysing the works in the rhetoric context one can argue that musical output of the late Baroque era was dominated by the idea of compliance with regulations and conventions that ruled in particular spheres. However, one can also observe that those works often reveal very individual qualities and attributes.

Music and Liturgy

Frederick Aquilina

Title : Sacred Music and the Liturgy in Malta During the 17th and 18th Centuries

Malta is a small island situated in the central Mediterranean. Mdina, the old city with its Cathedral dedicated to St. Paul, was the centre of all liturgical and religious activity, the place where the prime development and the most professionally conceived performance of church music evolved. This paper concentrates mainly on sacred music and the Maltese Liturgy during the 17th and 18th centuries, and is divided under eight headings:

(i) Sacred Music and the Liturgy – An Overview: a summary of the main factors that constitute the history of sacred music up to the mid-18th century with special reference to Malta’s leading composer, Benigno Zerafa (1726-1804), who studied in Naples from 1738 to 1744, following then a career as maestro di cappella of the Cathedral until 1786. Information about devotional rituals and major feasts celebrated on the island is given, with emphasis on Maltese liturgical observances.
(ii) Vespers: a study of the main services with music, starting with Vespers.
(iii) Processions: a look at their religious relevance and the main musical ingredients.
(iv) High Mass: the structure of the mass and the musical items performed.
(v) Other Feasts: other feasts celebrated at the Cathedral among them those of the Blessed Virgin.
(vi) Music Performance: reference is made to the composition and performance of sacred music at the Cathedral, and the role of the maestro di cappella.
(vii) The Cappella Musicale: its involvement in the Maltese liturgy.
(viii) Conclusion: Italian influences on Maltese church music.

A number of appendices (maps, images, musical excerpts/examples) serves to enhance the readers’ perception about Malta and its musical heritage.

Malta is a small island situated in the central Mediterranean. Mdina, the old city with its Cathedral dedicated to St. Paul, was the centre of all liturgical and religious activity, the place where the prime development and the most professionally conceived performance of church music evolved. This paper concentrates mainly on sacred music and the Maltese Liturgy during the 17th and 18th centuries, and is divided under eight headings:

(i) Sacred Music and the Liturgy – An Overview: a summary of the main factors that constitute the history of sacred music up to the mid-18th century with special reference to Malta’s leading composer, Benigno Zerafa (1726-1804), who studied in Naples from 1738 to 1744, following then a career as maestro di cappella of the Cathedral until 1786. Information about devotional rituals and major feasts celebrated on the island is given, with emphasis on Maltese liturgical observances.
(ii) Vespers: a study of the main services with music, starting with Vespers.
(iii) Processions: a look at their religious relevance and the main musical ingredients.
(iv) High Mass: the structure of the mass and the musical items performed.
(v) Other Feasts: other feasts celebrated at the Cathedral among them those of the Blessed Virgin.
(vi) Music Performance: reference is made to the composition and performance of sacred music at the Cathedral, and the role of the maestro di cappella.
(vii) The Cappella Musicale: its involvement in the Maltese liturgy.
(viii) Conclusion: Italian influences on Maltese church music.

A number of appendices (maps, images, musical excerpts/examples) serves to enhance the readers’ perception about Malta and its musical heritage.

Thomas Hochradner

Title : “Venite populi” – approaches to a motet for double choir composed for Corpus Christi Day

The motet “Venite populi” for Corpus Christi Day, whose words are the result of a compilation – a passage from the Old Testament (Dtn 4,7) followed by a sacramental prayer and finally a text from the New Testament (Kor 5,8) –, was set to music at least twice for the Cathedral in Salzburg. Sources for compositions by Matthias Siegmund Biechteler (Maestro di Cappella at Salzburg Archiepiscopal Court from 1706 to 1743) from the first half of the 18th century and by Wolfgang Amadé Mozart from the year 1776 [K 248a (260)] have been preserved. The motet by Biechteler was proveably performed in the sixties or seventies so that Mozart must have known the composition. Thus two later possibilities of reading of a polychoral musical concept that had gained great significance in Salzburg during the 17th century, that furthermore are related, can be dealt with. The motets by Biechteler and Mozart will be weighed between traditional contents and innovative degree.

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